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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091366

Integration of Terrestrial and Drone-Borne Hyperspectral and Photogrammetric Sensing Methods for Exploration Mapping and Mining Monitoring

1
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology, Chemnitzer Straße 40, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
2
School of Geoscience, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract

Mapping lithology and geological structures accurately remains a challenge in difficult terrain or in active mining areas. We demonstrate that the integration of terrestrial and drone-borne multi-sensor remote sensing techniques significantly improves the reliability, safety, and efficiency of geological activities during exploration and mining monitoring. We describe an integrated workflow to produce a geometrically and spectrally accurate combination of a Structure-from-Motion Multi-View Stereo point cloud and hyperspectral data cubes in the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), as well as long-wave infrared (LWIR) ranges acquired by terrestrial and drone-borne imaging sensors. Vertical outcrops in a quarry in the Freiberg mining district, Saxony (Germany), featuring sulfide-rich hydrothermal zones in a granitoid host, are used to showcase the versatility of our approach. The image data are processed using spectroscopic and machine learning algorithms to generate meaningful 2.5D (i.e., surface) maps that are available to geologists on the ground just shortly after data acquisition. We validate the remote sensing data with thin section analysis and laboratory X-ray diffraction, as well as point spectroscopic data. The combination of ground- and drone-based photogrammetric and hyperspectral VNIR, SWIR, and LWIR imaging allows for safer and more efficient ground surveys, as well as a better, statistically sound sampling strategy for further structural, geochemical, and petrological investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperspectral imaging; Structure-from-Motion (SfM); mineral mapping; virtual outcrops; geology; hydrothermal; UAV; long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging; Structure-from-Motion (SfM); mineral mapping; virtual outcrops; geology; hydrothermal; UAV; long-wave infrared
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kirsch, M.; Lorenz, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Tusa, L.; Möckel, R.; Hödl, P.; Booysen, R.; Khodadadzadeh, M.; Gloaguen, R. Integration of Terrestrial and Drone-Borne Hyperspectral and Photogrammetric Sensing Methods for Exploration Mapping and Mining Monitoring. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1366.

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