Next Article in Journal
Direct Instantaneous Frequency Rate Estimation to Improve the Carrier Estimation Performance in Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Flight
Next Article in Special Issue
SLALOM: An All-Surface Snow Water Path Retrieval Algorithm for the GPM Microwave Imager
Previous Article in Journal
Integrating Drone Imagery into High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Assessments of Estuarine Environments
Previous Article in Special Issue
Estimates of the Change in the Oceanic Precipitation Off the Coast of Europe due to Increasing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Open AccessArticle

Advancing Precipitation Estimation and Streamflow Simulations in Complex Terrain with X-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Observations

1
National Observatory of Athens, IERSD, 15236 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, DUTH, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
3
Department of Water Resources, School of Civil Engineering, NTUA, 10682 Athens, Greece
4
Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06269, USA
5
Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 9190401, Israel
6
Institute for Alpine Environment, Eurac research, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
7
Department of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria
8
Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081258
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Precipitation)
In mountain basins, the use of long-range operational weather radars is often associated with poor quantitative precipitation estimation due to a number of challenges posed by the complexity of terrain. As a result, the applicability of radar-based precipitation estimates for hydrological studies is often limited over areas that are in close proximity to the radar. This study evaluates the advantages of using X-band polarimetric (XPOL) radar as a means to fill the coverage gaps and improve complex terrain precipitation estimation and associated hydrological applications based on a field experiment conducted in an area of Northeast Italian Alps characterized by large elevation differences. The corresponding rainfall estimates from two operational C-band weather radar observations are compared to the XPOL rainfall estimates for a near-range (10–35 km) mountainous basin (64 km2). In situ rainfall observations from a dense rain gauge network and two disdrometers (a 2D-video and a Parsivel) are used for ground validation of the radar-rainfall estimates. Ten storm events over a period of two years are used to explore the differences between the locally deployed XPOL vs. longer-range operational radar-rainfall error statistics. Hourly aggregate rainfall estimates by XPOL, corrected for rain-path attenuation and vertical reflectivity profile, exhibited correlations between 0.70 and 0.99 against reference rainfall data and 21% mean relative error for rainfall rates above 0.2 mm h−1. The corresponding metrics from the operational radar-network rainfall products gave a strong underestimation (50–70%) and lower correlations (0.48–0.81). For the two highest flow-peak events, a hydrological model (Kinematic Local Excess Model) was forced with the different radar-rainfall estimations and in situ rain gauge precipitation data at hourly resolution, exhibiting close agreement between the XPOL and gauge-based driven runoff simulations, while the simulations obtained by the operational radar rainfall products resulted in a greatly underestimated runoff response. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-band radar; dual-polarization; precipitation; complex terrain; runoff simulations X-band radar; dual-polarization; precipitation; complex terrain; runoff simulations
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Anagnostou, M.N.; Nikolopoulos, E.I.; Kalogiros, J.; Anagnostou, E.N.; Marra, F.; Mair, E.; Bertoldi, G.; Tappeiner, U.; Borga, M. Advancing Precipitation Estimation and Streamflow Simulations in Complex Terrain with X-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Observations. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1258.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop