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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(5), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10050677

Microrelief Associated with Gas Emission Craters: Remote-Sensing and Field-Based Study

1
Cryolithology and Glaciology Department, Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991, Russia
2
Earth Cryosphere Institute Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS, PO Box 1230, Tyumen 625000, Russia
3
International Institute of Cryology and Cryosophy, University of Tyumen, 6 Volodarskogo St., Tyumen 625003, Russia
4
Cartography and Geoinformatics Department, Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991, Russia
5
ScanEx Research and Development Center, Office 732, Moscow 108811, Russia
6
Cartography and Geoinformatics Department, Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya emb., St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Dynamic Permafrost Regions)
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Abstract

Formation of gas emission craters (GEC) is a new process in the permafrost zone, leading to considerable terrain changes. Yet their role in changing the relief is local, incomparable in the volume of the removed deposits to other destructive cryogenic processes. However, the relief-forming role of GECs is not limited to the appearance of the crater itself, but also results in positive and negative microforms as well. Negative microforms are rounded hollows, surrounded by piles of ejected or extruded deposits. Hypotheses related to the origin of these forms are put forward and supported by an analysis of multi-temporal satellite images, field observations and photographs of GECs. Remote sensing data specifically was used for interpretation of landform origin, measuring distances and density of material scattering, identifying scattered material through analysis of repeated imagery. Remote-sensing and field data reliably substantiate an impact nature of the hollows around GECs. It is found that scattering of frozen blocks at a distance of up to 293 m from a GEC is capable of creating an impact hollow. These data indicate the influence of GEC on the relief through the formation of a microrelief within a radius of 15–20 times the radius of the crater itself. Our study aims at the prediction of risk zones. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas emission crater; remote sensing for permafrost; microrelief; impact landforms; field study; UAV survey; multi-temporal remote sensing data gas emission crater; remote sensing for permafrost; microrelief; impact landforms; field study; UAV survey; multi-temporal remote sensing data
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kizyakov, A.; Khomutov, A.; Zimin, M.; Khairullin, R.; Babkina, E.; Dvornikov, Y.; Leibman, M. Microrelief Associated with Gas Emission Craters: Remote-Sensing and Field-Based Study. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 677.

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