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Open AccessArticle

Leaf and Canopy Level Detection of Fusarium Virguliforme (Sudden Death Syndrome) in Soybean

1
Department of Forest & Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
2
Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
3
Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030426
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
Pre-visual detection of crop disease is critical for food security. Field-based spectroscopic remote sensing offers a method to enable timely detection, but still requires appropriate instrumentation and testing. Soybean plants were spectrally measured throughout a growing season to assess the capacity of leaf and canopy level spectral measurements to detect non-visual foliage symptoms induced by Fusarium virguliforme (Fv, which causes sudden death syndrome). Canopy reflectance measurements were made using the Piccolo Doppio dual field-of-view, two-spectrometer (400 to 1630 nm) system on a tractor. Leaf level measurements were obtained, in different plots, using a handheld spectrometer (400 to 2500 nm). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) was applied to the spectroscopic data to discriminate between Fv-inoculated and control plants. Canopy and leaf spectral data allowed identification of Fv infection, prior to visual symptoms, with classification accuracy of 88% and 91% for calibration, 79% and 87% for cross-validation, and 82% and 92% for validation, respectively. Differences in wavelengths important to prediction by canopy vs. leaf data confirm that there are different bases for accurate predictions among methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used on a late-stage canopy level data to predict soybean seed yield, with calibration, cross-validation and validation R2 values 0.71, 0.59 and 0.62 (p < 0.01), respectively, and validation root mean square error of 0.31 t·ha−1. Spectral data from the tractor mounted system are thus sensitive to the expression of Fv root infection at canopy scale prior to canopy symptoms, suggesting such systems may be effective for precision agricultural research and management. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperspectral; precision agriculture; diseases detection; Piccolo Doppio; partial least squares; seed yield assessment; sudden death syndrome; soybeans hyperspectral; precision agriculture; diseases detection; Piccolo Doppio; partial least squares; seed yield assessment; sudden death syndrome; soybeans
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herrmann, I.; Vosberg, S.K.; Ravindran, P.; Singh, A.; Chang, H.-X.; Chilvers, M.I.; Conley, S.P.; Townsend, P.A. Leaf and Canopy Level Detection of Fusarium Virguliforme (Sudden Death Syndrome) in Soybean. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 426.

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