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Open AccessArticle

Assessing the Accuracy of Automatically Extracted Shorelines on Microtidal Beaches from Landsat 7, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 Imagery

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Geo-Environmental Cartography and Remote Sensing Group, Department of Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry, Universitat Politècnica de València., Camí de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Applied Mathematics, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020326
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
This paper evaluates the accuracy of shoreline positions obtained from the infrared (IR) bands of Landsat 7, Landsat 8, and Sentinel-2 imagery on natural beaches. A workflow for sub-pixel shoreline extraction, already tested on seawalls, is used. The present work analyzes the behavior of that workflow and resultant shorelines on a micro-tidal (<20 cm) sandy beach and makes a comparison with other more accurate sets of shorelines. These other sets were obtained using differential GNSS surveys and terrestrial photogrammetry techniques through the C-Pro monitoring system. 21 sub-pixel shorelines and their respective high-precision lines served for the evaluation. The results prove that NIR bands can easily confuse the shoreline with whitewater, whereas SWIR bands are more reliable in this respect. Moreover, it verifies that shorelines obtained from bands 11 and 12 of Sentinel-2 are very similar to those obtained with bands 6 and 7 of Landsat 8 (−0.75 ± 2.5 m; negative sign indicates landward bias). The variability of the brightness in the terrestrial zone influences shoreline detection: brighter zones cause a small landward bias. A relation between the swell and shoreline accuracy is found, mainly identified in images obtained from Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2. On natural beaches, the mean shoreline error varies with the type of image used. After analyzing the whole set of shorelines detected from Landsat 7, we conclude that the mean horizontal error is 4.63 m (±6.55 m) and 5.50 m (±4.86 m), respectively, for high and low gain images. For the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 shorelines, the mean error reaches 3.06 m (±5.79 m). View Full-Text
Keywords: coastline extraction; sub-pixel precision; sandy beach monitoring; mid-resolution satellite imagery; IR bands; coastal wave conditions coastline extraction; sub-pixel precision; sandy beach monitoring; mid-resolution satellite imagery; IR bands; coastal wave conditions
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Pardo-Pascual, J.E.; Sánchez-García, E.; Almonacid-Caballer, J.; Palomar-Vázquez, J.M.; Priego de los Santos, E.; Fernández-Sarría, A.; Balaguer-Beser, Á. Assessing the Accuracy of Automatically Extracted Shorelines on Microtidal Beaches from Landsat 7, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 326.

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