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Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Using the GREET Model—A Comparative Study

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Department of Supply Chain and Information Management, School of Decision Sciences, The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
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Department of Construction Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Technology and Higher Institute of Hong Kong (THEi), Hong Kong, China
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Department of Design, Faculty of Design and Environment, Technology and Higher Institute of Hong Kong (THEi), Hong Kong, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Emilio Cerdá and Kepa Solaun
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4872; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094872
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 26 April 2021
Facing global warming and recent bans on the use of diesel in vehicles, there is a growing need to develop vehicles powered by renewable energy sources to mitigate greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions. Among the various forms of non-fossil energy for vehicles, hydrogen fuel is emerging as a promising way to combat global warming. To date, most studies on vehicle carbon emissions have focused on diesel and electric vehicles (EVs). Emission assessment methodologies are usually developed for fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) which are non-durable household goods such as packaged foods, beverages, and toiletries instead of vehicle products. There is an increase in the number of articles addressing the product carbon footprint (PCF) of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the recent years, while relatively little research focuses on both vehicle PCF and fuel cycle. Zero-emission vehicles initiative has also brought the importance of investigating the emission throughout the fuel cycle of hydrogen fuel cell and its environmental impact. To address these gaps, this study uses the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process of GREET (greenhouse gases, regulated emissions, and energy use in transportation) to compare the PCF of an EV (Tesla Model 3) and a hydrogen fuel cell car (Toyota MIRAI). According to the GREET results, the fuel cycle contributes significantly to the PCF of both vehicles. The findings also reveal the need for greater transparency in the disclosure of relevant information on the PCF methodology adopted by vehicle manufacturers to enable comparison of their vehicles’ emissions. Future work will include examining the best practices of PCF reporting for vehicles powered by renewable energy sources as well as examining the carbon footprints of hydrogen production technologies based on different methodologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon footprint; electric vehicle (EV); fuel cycle; hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV); product carbon footprint (PCF); plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV); renewable energy carbon footprint; electric vehicle (EV); fuel cycle; hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV); product carbon footprint (PCF); plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV); renewable energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wong, E.Y.C.; Ho, D.C.K.; So, S.; Tsang, C.-W.; Chan, E.M.H. Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Using the GREET Model—A Comparative Study. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4872. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094872

AMA Style

Wong EYC, Ho DCK, So S, Tsang C-W, Chan EMH. Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Using the GREET Model—A Comparative Study. Sustainability. 2021; 13(9):4872. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094872

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wong, Eugene Y.C.; Ho, Danny C.K.; So, Stuart; Tsang, Chi-Wing; Chan, Eve M.H. 2021. "Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Using the GREET Model—A Comparative Study" Sustainability 13, no. 9: 4872. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094872

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