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Article

Exploring the Impacts of Driving Environment on Crashes in Tunnel–Bridge–Tunnel Groups: An Eight-Zone Analytic Approach

1
School of Traffic and Transportation, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
2
School of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Young-Ji Byon
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042272
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
Tunnel–bridge–tunnel groups (TBTGs) are emerging roads that often involve simple road alignments, but complex driving environments. Investigating crashes occurred in TBTGs is essential for revealing the driving environment–adaptability relationships for such roads. This study seeks to analyze the crash characteristics of component sections in TBTGs with different driving environments and compare the impact of differences in the key factor on the crashes. After TBTGs were defined through a proposed safety-critical distance metric determined via visual theory and actual crash analyses, an eight-zone analytical method considering road types and lighting was developed to probe into crashes in TBTGs. The results show that the proper safety-critical distances for bridge–tunnel and tunnel–tunnel groups are 150 and 500 m, respectively. In TBTGs, the crash rate in ordinary sections is higher than that in bridges and tunnels, particularly in the access zone. The first passed tunnel witnesses a higher proportion of crashes at the access zone and transition zone than the second tunnel. The influence of bridge and tunnel ratios on crashes is related to the ratio and type of bridges and tunnels. The findings presented herein can provide evidence-based guidance for the safety design and management of TBTGs. View Full-Text
Keywords: road traffic crash; tunnel–bridge–tunnel groups; driving environments; zone division; crash rate; bridge–tunnel ratios road traffic crash; tunnel–bridge–tunnel groups; driving environments; zone division; crash rate; bridge–tunnel ratios
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, Z.; Liu, S.; Tang, J.; Wu, P.; Tang, B. Exploring the Impacts of Driving Environment on Crashes in Tunnel–Bridge–Tunnel Groups: An Eight-Zone Analytic Approach. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2272. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042272

AMA Style

Sun Z, Liu S, Tang J, Wu P, Tang B. Exploring the Impacts of Driving Environment on Crashes in Tunnel–Bridge–Tunnel Groups: An Eight-Zone Analytic Approach. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):2272. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Zongyuan, Shuo Liu, Jie Tang, Peng Wu, and Boming Tang. 2021. "Exploring the Impacts of Driving Environment on Crashes in Tunnel–Bridge–Tunnel Groups: An Eight-Zone Analytic Approach" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 2272. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042272

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