This study decomposed shocks of the global crude oil (GCO) market and Korean gasoline (KG) market into six types using the structural vector auto-regressive model. Breaking down the shocks into six, we analyzed how each shock affects the macroeconomy and gasoline market in Korea. Results of the analysis revealed that the oil supply shock did not cause a large fluctuation in gasoline prices, but it harmed the macroeconomy. By contrast, the two shocks on the demand side of the GCO market caused a large increase in domestic gasoline prices, but they did not negatively affect the macroeconomy. Meanwhile, in the KG market, gasoline-refining shock and gasoline demand shock caused a significant increase in gasoline prices. Both shocks had some negative effects on the Korean macroeconomy at a certain point, but the effects are not as strong as the oil supply shock. However, the gasoline distribution shock in Korea rarely caused negative consequences for major macroeconomic variables. Moreover, analyzing the KG prices through historical decomposition, we found that the two demand-side factors of the GCO market and the demand shock of the KG market have had the most important influence on the gasoline price since the 2000s. From the analysis, the increase in gasoline prices in Korea since the 2000s can be inferred to have no significant negative impact on the macroeconomy. Therefore, the essential factors of price fluctuations must be focused on in analyzing domestic gasoline price and their impact on the macroeconomy.
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