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Article

A Battery of Soil and Plant Indicators of NBS Environmental Performance in the Context of Global Change

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CREAF, Campus UAB, Edifici C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
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Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
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Research Group Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
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Unitat de Botànica, Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d’Ecologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerd Lupp
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041913
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 23 January 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions—Concept, Evaluation, and Governance)
Nature-based solutions (NBSs) for risk reduction produce environmental effects that must be assessed to evaluate their performance. In a context of climate change and growing concern about the loss of biodiversity, indicators informing about ecosystem complexity, resilience and stability are required. NBS projects hardly ever include environmental monitoring programs and, at best, NBS performance is evaluated based on elementary indicators that provide poor information about ecosystem functions and services. Within the framework of the PHUSICOS (EU, H2020) project, a NBS approach is being applied to reduce the hydrometeorological risks (rock falls and snow avalanches) that threaten a transnational road and a very populated town in the Pyrenees range. In both cases, the planned actions are modifying soil and vegetation structure and functioning as well as the environmental services they provide. Here we present a set of soil and plant indicators designed to be included in the postoperation monitoring plan of both NBS projects. We provide a description and information about the range of values of every indicator measured in the study sites together with indications about analytical methods and sampling calendar. We discuss the trade-offs between monetary cost, expertise requirements and meaningfulness of the indicators. View Full-Text
Keywords: NBS monitoring; hydrogeological risks; environmental services; soil bioindicators; plant indicators; rock falls; snow avalanches NBS monitoring; hydrogeological risks; environmental services; soil bioindicators; plant indicators; rock falls; snow avalanches
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andrés, P.; Doblas-Miranda, E.; Mattana, S.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Vayreda, J.; Guardiola, M.; Pino, J.; Gordillo, J. A Battery of Soil and Plant Indicators of NBS Environmental Performance in the Context of Global Change. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041913

AMA Style

Andrés P, Doblas-Miranda E, Mattana S, Molowny-Horas R, Vayreda J, Guardiola M, Pino J, Gordillo J. A Battery of Soil and Plant Indicators of NBS Environmental Performance in the Context of Global Change. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041913

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andrés, Pilar, Enrique Doblas-Miranda, Stefania Mattana, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Jordi Vayreda, Moisès Guardiola, Joan Pino, and Javier Gordillo. 2021. "A Battery of Soil and Plant Indicators of NBS Environmental Performance in the Context of Global Change" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041913

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