The Drivers of Employees’ Active Innovative Behaviour in Chinese High-Tech Enterprises
2. Hypothesis Development
2.1. HPWS and Active Innovation Behaviour
2.2. The Mediating Roles of the Needs for Autonomy and Competence
2.3. The Moderating Role of the Need for Relatedness
3. Methods and Methodology
3.1. Participants and Procedures
4.1. Model Testing
4.1.1. Common Method Variance
4.1.2. Discriminant Validity
4.2. Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis
4.3. Hypotheses Testing
4.3.1. Path Analysis of the Direct Effects
4.3.2. The Mediating Effect Test between the Needs for Autonomy and Competency
4.3.3. The Moderating Effect Test of the Need for Relatedness
4.3.4. The Moderating Mediating Effect Test
5.1. Theoretical Implications
5.1.1. The Relationship between HPWS and Active Innovation Behaviour
5.1.2. The Mediating Effects of the Needs for Autonomy and Competence
5.1.3. The Moderating Effect of the Need for Relatedness
5.2. Practical Implications
5.3. Limitations and Future Research Directions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A.1. Basic Personal Information
- Gender (1 = male; 2 = female)
- Age (1 = under 25 years old; 2 = 26–35 years old; 3 = 36–45 years old; 4 = over 45 years old)
- Education (1 = doctor; 2 = Postgraduate; 3 = Undergraduate; 4 = Junior college and below)
- Working years (1 = 0–1 year; 2 = 1–3 years; 3 = 3–5 years; 4 = 5–10 years; 5 = more than 10 years)
Appendix A.2. High-Performance Work System Scale
|Strongly disagree||strongly agree|
- The enterprise provides training on job skills for employees.
- The enterprise attaches great importance to pre-job training for new employees.
- The enterprise provides better welfare for employees.
- The enterprise has a formal complaint procedure.
- The grass-roots staff can respond to the suggestions of the enterprise smoothly and upward.
- Employees get the information they need.
- The enterprise has standardized staff performance appraisal management methods.
- Performance appraisal is mainly based on quantitative objective standards.
- Employee performance is linked to team performance.
- Enterprises attach great importance to the assessment of team performance.
- Job performance is an essential basis for an individual to get a bonus.
Appendix A.3. Autonomy Needs, Competence Needs and Relatedness Needs Scale
|Strongly disagree||strongly agree|
- I can make my own decisions at work.
- I often have to take orders at work.
- I can take a different approach to my job.
- What I want to do at work is what I have to do.
- I do what I think is best for me at work.
- I think I’m qualified for my present job.
- I can finish my job.
- I believe I can do the job well by myself.
- I’m good at my job.
- I can accomplish the difficult tasks in my job.
- I get on well with my colleagues at work.
- I feel like I’m part of a team at work.
- I can discuss with other colleagues matters that are important to me at work.
- I don’t feel lonely at work.
- Some of the people I work with are my close friends.
Appendix A.4. Active Innovation Behaviour
|Strongly disagree||strongly agree|
- I can find problems in my work that need improvement.
- I am eager to solve the problems in my work.
- I can take the initiative in making suggestions.
- I am proactive in looking for workflow improvements.
- I can listen to other people’s suggestions at work.
- I actively search for relevant information before innovation.
- I can anticipate the difficulties that may be encountered in the innovation work.
- I take risks and innovate.
- I’m not afraid to fail.
- I accept responsibility for the failure of innovation.
- I try to overcome the difficulties I encounter in the process of innovation.
- Persist in innovation despite unfavorable conditions such as shortage of funds and time pressure.
- Find a way out of a problem, rather than running away from it.
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|Sample Characteristics||Classification Standard||Frequency||Proportion (%)|
|Age||≤25 years old||30||8.5%|
|26–35 years old||188||53.6%|
|36–45 years old||57||16.2%|
|>45 years old||76||21.7%|
|Junior College and below||22||6.3%|
|Working years||0–1 years||63||17.9%|
|Six-factor model||IP; CP; Re; Au; Co; AIB||842.46||335||0.93||0.94||0.07||0.04|
|Five-factor model||IP + CP; Re; Au; Co; AIB||1307.31||340||0.88||0.89||0.09||0.08|
|Four-factor model||IP; CP; Re + Au + Co; AIB||1307.20||344||0.88||0.89||0.09||0.06|
|Three-factor model||IP + CP; Re + Au + Co; AIB||1765.71||347||0.82||0.84||0.11||0.09|
|Two-factor model||IP + CP + Re + Au + Co; AIB||2789.76||349||0.70||0.72||0.14||0.10|
|One-factor model||IP + CP + Re + Au + Co + AIB||4630.88||350||0.47||0.51||0.19||0.15|
|4. Working years||3.42||1.49||0.02||0.68 **||0.21 **|
|5. IP||5.18||1.25||0.02||−0.27 **||0.13 *||−0.24 **|
|6. CP||4.17||1.35||0.03||0.13 *||−0.06||0.16 **||0.20 **|
|7. Re||5.86||0.79||−0.04||−0.10||0.08||−0.07||0.53 **||0.17 **|
|8. Au||4.72||1.23||0.03||−0.21 **||0.12 *||−0.13 *||0.63 **||0.24 **||0.59 **|
|9. Co||5.24||1.27||−0.04||−0.25 **||0.13 **||−0.17 **||0.60 **||0.11 *||0.67 **||0.69 **|
|10. AIB||4.97||1.31||−0.05||−0.20 **||0.20 **||−0.17 **||0.44 **||−0.21 **||0.34 **||0.38 **||0.44 **|
|Indirect Effect||Estimates||Product of Coefficients||Bias-Corrected 95%CI|
|Variables||The Need for Autonomy||The Need for Competence|
|Age||−0.18 **||−0.09||−0.09||−0.15 *||−0.13 *||−0.21 **||−0.13 *||−0.12 **||−0.13 *||−0.12 *|
|Education||0.11 *||0.01||0.02||0.08||0.10 *||0.14 **||0.05||0.06||0.05||0.06|
|IP||0.42 ***||0.41 ***||0.31 ***||0.30 ***|
|CP||0.18 ***||0.19 ***||0.31 ***||0.30 ***|
|Re||0.37 ***||0.34 ***||0.54 ***||0.51 ***||0.49 ***||0.46 ***||0.49 ***||0.46 ***|
|IP*Re||−0.09 *||−0.08 *|
|CP*Re||−0.16 ***||−0.08 **|
|F||5.01 **||56.45 ***||49.49 ***||40.17 ***||37.89 ***||7.67 ***||68.76 ***||60.15 ***||53.81 ***||47.73 ***|
|△F||150.68 ***||4.37 *||104.51 ***||14.62 ***||175.47 ***||4.40 *||134.28 ***||6.26 **|
|Path||Grouping Statistics||Boot Effect||Boot SE||BootLLCI||BootULCI|
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Fan, C.; Hu, M.; Shangguan, Z.; Ye, C.; Yan, S.; Wang, M.Y. The Drivers of Employees’ Active Innovative Behaviour in Chinese High-Tech Enterprises. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6032. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116032
Fan C, Hu M, Shangguan Z, Ye C, Yan S, Wang MY. The Drivers of Employees’ Active Innovative Behaviour in Chinese High-Tech Enterprises. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6032. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116032Chicago/Turabian Style
Fan, Chuanhao, Mingyue Hu, Ziheng Shangguan, Chunlan Ye, Shuting Yan, and Mark Yaolin Wang. 2021. "The Drivers of Employees’ Active Innovative Behaviour in Chinese High-Tech Enterprises" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6032. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116032