Industrial development of the economic system of any state is directly related to the use of energy potential. China’s industrial breakthrough is no exception. Today, China is one of the largest importers–consumers of oil, whose economy is extremely dependent on the energy market. The growing production and population, as well as climatic changes that directly determine the well-being of society, have become the causal basis for the development of alternative ways of generating energy. The aim of the study is to model the implementation of the sustainable development strategy in China through the production and use of biofuels. The simulation is made taking into account the following. The production capacities of Chinese licensed producers of fuel ethanol are calculated. The efficiency of bioethanol production from various types of biological raw materials is evaluated. An economic and mathematical model of bioethanol production is built. The article forecasts the profitability of bioethanol sales from various types of biological raw materials (sugar sorghum, corn) in Chinese and European markets. The study comprehensively reveals the features of the use of biofuels in an industrial country, taking into account geopolitical factors, social and market contexts, as well as technical analysis of the raw materials and production potential of Chinese companies. The article also interprets the economic processes associated with the introduction of biofuels in the ecological and economic systems of China. The article demonstrates other concepts regarding the consequences of the energy sector’s transition to the principles of energy production from biomass. The article shows the contradictory nature of the impact of biofuel production on the food market and the agricultural sector. The article analyzes possible social, resource and macroeconomic risks, and also indicates possible vectors for further research that might be aimed at diversifying the associated negative processes.
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