Next Article in Journal
Dark Clouds over the Silk Road: Challenges Facing Mountain Environments in Central Asia
Next Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Agricultural CO2 Emissions in Henan Province, China, Based on EKC and Decoupling
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Cultural Aspects on Building the Smart City Approach: Managing Diversity in Europe (London), North America (New York) and Asia (Singapore)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impacts of Climatic and Agricultural Input Factors on the Water Footprint of Crop Production in Jilin Province, China
 
 
Article

Standardized Recipes and Their Influence on the Environmental Impact Assessment of Mixed Dishes: A Case Study on Pizza

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Nutrition Impact, LLC, 9725 D Drive North, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9466; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229466
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 9 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drivers of Environmental Impacts from Agricultural Production Systems)
Food and diet life cycle assessment (LCA) studies offer insights on the environmental performance and improvement potential of food systems and dietary patterns. However, the influence of ingredient resolution in food-LCAs is often overlooked. To address this, four distinct decomposition methods were used to determine ingredients for mixed dishes and characterize their environmental impacts, using the carbon footprint of the U.S. daily pizza intake as a case study. Pizza-specific and daily pizza intake carbon footprints varied substantially between decomposition methods. The carbon footprint for vegetarian pizza was 0.18–0.45 kg CO2eq/serving, for meat pizza was 0.56–0.73 kg CO2eq/serving, and for currently consumed pizzas in the U.S. (26.3 g/person/day; 75 pizzas types) was 0.072–0.098 kg CO2eq/person/day. These ranges could be explained by differences in pizza coverage, ingredient resolution, availability of ingredient environmental information, and ingredient adjustability for losses between decomposition methods. From the approaches considered, the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, which reports standardized food recipes in relative weights, appears to offer the most appropriate and useful food decompositions for food-LCAs. The influence and limitations of sources of reference flows should be better evaluated and acknowledged in food and diet LCAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; food decomposition; mixed dishes; pizza; carbon footprint life cycle assessment; food decomposition; mixed dishes; pizza; carbon footprint
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Stylianou, K.S.; McDonald, E.; Fulgoni III, V.L.; Jolliet, O. Standardized Recipes and Their Influence on the Environmental Impact Assessment of Mixed Dishes: A Case Study on Pizza. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9466. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229466

AMA Style

Stylianou KS, McDonald E, Fulgoni III VL, Jolliet O. Standardized Recipes and Their Influence on the Environmental Impact Assessment of Mixed Dishes: A Case Study on Pizza. Sustainability. 2020; 12(22):9466. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229466

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stylianou, Katerina S., Emily McDonald, Victor L. Fulgoni III, and Olivier Jolliet. 2020. "Standardized Recipes and Their Influence on the Environmental Impact Assessment of Mixed Dishes: A Case Study on Pizza" Sustainability 12, no. 22: 9466. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229466

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop