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Article

Remediation of Potential Toxic Elements from Wastes and Soils: Analysis and Energy Prospects

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Department Area of Electrical Engineering, School of Mining Engineering, University of León (Spain), Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24071 León, Spain
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Department Area of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of León (Spain), Campus de Vegazana, s/n, 24071 León, Spain
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Department Area of Mines Engineering, School of Mining Engineering, University of León (Spain), Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24071 León, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3307; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123307
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Locally Available Energy Sources and Sustainability)
The aim of this study is to evaluate the application of the main hazardous waste management techniques in mining operations and in dumping sites being conscious of the inter-linkages and inter-compartment of the contaminated soils and sediments. For this purpose, a systematic review of the literature on the reduction or elimination of different potential toxic elements was carried out, focusing on As, Cd and Hg as main current contaminant agents. Selected techniques are feasible according to several European countries’ directives, especially in Spain. In the case of arsenic, we verified that there exists a main line that is based on the use of iron minerals and its derivatives. It is important to determine its speciation since As (III) is more toxic and mobile than As (V). For cadmium (II), we observed a certain predominance of the use of biotic techniques, compared to a variety of others. Finally, in mercury case, treatments include a phytoremediation technique using Limnocharis flava and the use of a new natural adsorbent: a modified nanobiocomposite hydrogel. The use of biological treatments is increasingly being studied because they are environmentally friendly, efficient and highly viable in both process and energy terms. The study of techniques for the removal of potential toxic elements should be performed with a focus on the simultaneous removal of several metals, since in nature they do not appear in isolation. Moreover, we found that energy analysis constitutes a limiting factor in relation to the feasibility of these techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: hazardous waste; contaminated soil; potential toxic elements; removal; mine waste hazardous waste; contaminated soil; potential toxic elements; removal; mine waste
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MDPI and ACS Style

González-Martínez, A.; de Simón-Martín, M.; López, R.; Táboas-Fernández, R.; Bernardo-Sánchez, A. Remediation of Potential Toxic Elements from Wastes and Soils: Analysis and Energy Prospects. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3307. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123307

AMA Style

González-Martínez A, de Simón-Martín M, López R, Táboas-Fernández R, Bernardo-Sánchez A. Remediation of Potential Toxic Elements from Wastes and Soils: Analysis and Energy Prospects. Sustainability. 2019; 11(12):3307. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123307

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-Martínez, Alberto, Miguel de Simón-Martín, Roberto López, Raquel Táboas-Fernández, and Antonio Bernardo-Sánchez. 2019. "Remediation of Potential Toxic Elements from Wastes and Soils: Analysis and Energy Prospects" Sustainability 11, no. 12: 3307. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123307

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