Next Article in Journal
Air Conditioning System Sizing for Pure Electric Vehicle
Previous Article in Journal
Ultra Low Carbon Vehicle Demonstrator Programme – Post-Experience Usage Patterns, Driver Attitudes and Behavioural Change
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Economic Assessment of Different Air-conditioning and Heating Systems for Electric City Buses Based on Comprehensive Energetic Simulations

Department Methods for Product Development and Mechatronics Technische Universität Berlin Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(3), 398-406; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7030398
Published: 25 September 2015
PDF [1118 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]

Abstract

The air-conditioning and heating of the passenger cabin in an electric bus leads to a significant increase of the auxiliaries’ energy consumption. Due to limited battery capacity, the daily operating range of electric buses depends considerably on the ambient climate. In particular, heating is an energy-intensive process since no waste heat from the IC engine is available. Energetic simulations show drastic range reductions when the interior is heated by an electric resistance heater. In contrast, the range reduction can be limited noticeably if a heat pump is utilised. Therefore, the selection of heating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has a significant impact not only on the range but also on the operating costs of an electric vehicle. The aim of this study is to conduct a cost analysis for different HVAC systems of an electric city bus. The economic assessment is based on comprehensive energy consumption simulation and a life-cycle costing approach considering all expenses of the operation period. The examination reveals that the heat pump systems feature significant energy savings compared to conventional HVAC systems. However, over a life span of twelve years, the current high acquisition cost of a heat pump system is not compensated when only considering direct cost.
Keywords: electric bus; HVAC systems; energy simulation; economic assessment electric bus; HVAC systems; energy simulation; economic assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Göhlich, D.; Ly, T.-A.; Kunith, A.; Jefferies, D. Economic Assessment of Different Air-conditioning and Heating Systems for Electric City Buses Based on Comprehensive Energetic Simulations. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 398-406.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top