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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E1A, #07-03, No.1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576
University Scholars Programme/ School of Computing, National University of Singapore
Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, National University of Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1136-1143;
Published: 27 December 2013
PDF [1802 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental benefits in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reductions, but energy inputs and materials impacts associated with the conversion of a CBEV are weighed against savings during postconversion usage. It was found that conversion would reduce the life cycle energy consumed and emissions produced of a typical motorcycle by 72% and 45% respectively. These findings have important considerations for the current global transportation landscape.
Keywords: emissions; energy; LCA (Life Cycle Assessment); motorcycle; student project emissions; energy; LCA (Life Cycle Assessment); motorcycle; student project
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Xuan, P.Y.; Henz, M.; Weigl, J.D. Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 1136-1143.

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