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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E1A, #07-03, No.1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576
University Scholars Programme/ School of Computing, National University of Singapore
Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, National University of Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1136-1143;
Published: 27 December 2013
This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental benefits in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reductions, but energy inputs and materials impacts associated with the conversion of a CBEV are weighed against savings during postconversion usage. It was found that conversion would reduce the life cycle energy consumed and emissions produced of a typical motorcycle by 72% and 45% respectively. These findings have important considerations for the current global transportation landscape.
Keywords: emissions; energy; LCA (Life Cycle Assessment); motorcycle; student project emissions; energy; LCA (Life Cycle Assessment); motorcycle; student project
MDPI and ACS Style

Xuan, P.Y.; Henz, M.; Weigl, J.D. Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 1136-1143.

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