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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
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Production and use of Hydrogen – Regional Energy Systems Analysis of Oslo, Telemark and Rogaland

Institute for Energy Technology, P.O.Box 40, 2027 Kjeller, Norway
Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 311-322;
Published: 26 June 2009
PDF [901 KB, uploaded 16 May 2018]


The transportation sector in Norway represents approximately 30 % of the CO2-emissions. In order to significantly reduce CO2-emissions, measures towards the transportation sector have to be addressed. This includes both efficiency and new vehicle fuels. The NorWays project has been aiming at providing decision support for introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the Norwegian energy system. Important objectives have been to analyze and evaluate scenarios, market segments as well as geographical regions for introduction of hydrogen. Regional MARKAL models were developed for the counties Oslo, Telemark and Rogaland. The MARKAL models have been used in order to analyze the entire energy system and compare hydrogen technologies to other possibilities, such as bio fuels, plug-in hybrids etc. The analysis focuses on how taxes, restrictions and energy prices have an impact on the production and use of hydrogen towards 2050. The main scenarios analyzed have been a scenario based on assumptions from the EU hydrogen roadmap project HyWays, a scenario with no taxes on transport energy and a scenario with 75 % reduction in CO2-emissions by 2050. In the HyWays scenario all cars in Rogaland and Telemark use hydrogen in 2050. In Oslo, there are no hydrogen cars in this scenario, due to more expensive hydrogen in Oslo than in the other regions. Plug-in hybrids are introduced in Oslo from 2020, and in 2050 all cars are plug-in hybrids.
Keywords: hydrogen; energy source; infrastructure; costs; emissions hydrogen; energy source; infrastructure; costs; emissions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Espegren, K.A.; Rosenberg, E.; Fidje, A.; Stiller, C. Production and use of Hydrogen – Regional Energy Systems Analysis of Oslo, Telemark and Rogaland. World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3, 311-322.

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