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Open AccessArticle

Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

St Mary’s Pharmaceutical Unit, Cardiff and Vale UHB, Cardiff CF14 4HY, UK
Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 31;
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Penetration Enhancement of Topical Formulations)
Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: gabapentin; topical; Carbopol®; Lipoderm®; human skin gabapentin; topical; Carbopol®; Lipoderm®; human skin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martin, C.J.; Alcock, N.; Hiom, S.; Birchall, J.C. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations. Pharmaceutics 2017, 9, 31.

AMA Style

Martin CJ, Alcock N, Hiom S, Birchall JC. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations. Pharmaceutics. 2017; 9(3):31.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martin, Christopher J.; Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C. 2017. "Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations" Pharmaceutics 9, no. 3: 31.

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