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Open AccessArticle

Atomic Pairwise Distribution Function Analysis of the Amorphous Phase Prepared by Different Manufacturing Routes

1
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, 18 Frederick Street, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Technical R&D, Novartis Pharma AG, CH-4056, Basel, Switzerland.
Pharmaceutics 2012, 4(1), 93-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics4010093
Received: 12 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 31 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 1st Electronic Conference on Pharmaceutical Science)
Amlodipine besilate, a calcium channel antagonist, exists in several solid forms. Processing of anhydrate and dihydrate forms of this drug may lead to solid state changes, and is therefore the focus of this study. Milling was performed for the anhydrate form, whereas the dihydrate form was subjected to quench cooling thereby creating an amorphous form of the drug from both starting materials. The milled and quench cooled samples were, together with the crystalline starting materials, analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Raman spectroscopy and atomic pair-wise distribution function (PDF) analysis of the XRPD pattern. When compared to XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, the PDF analysis was superior in displaying the difference between the amorphous samples prepared by milling and quench cooling approaches of the two starting materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: atomic pair-wise distribution functions; Raman spectroscopy; XRPD; amlodipine besilate atomic pair-wise distribution functions; Raman spectroscopy; XRPD; amlodipine besilate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boetker, J.P.; Koradia, V.; Rades, T.; Rantanen, J.; Savolainen, M. Atomic Pairwise Distribution Function Analysis of the Amorphous Phase Prepared by Different Manufacturing Routes. Pharmaceutics 2012, 4, 93-103. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics4010093

AMA Style

Boetker JP, Koradia V, Rades T, Rantanen J, Savolainen M. Atomic Pairwise Distribution Function Analysis of the Amorphous Phase Prepared by Different Manufacturing Routes. Pharmaceutics. 2012; 4(1):93-103. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics4010093

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boetker, Johan P.; Koradia, Vishal; Rades, Thomas; Rantanen, Jukka; Savolainen, Marja. 2012. "Atomic Pairwise Distribution Function Analysis of the Amorphous Phase Prepared by Different Manufacturing Routes" Pharmaceutics 4, no. 1: 93-103. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics4010093

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