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Review

Lipid Nanocarriers for Anti-HIV Therapeutics: A Focus on Physicochemical Properties and Biotechnological Advances

by 1,†, 2,*,†, 3,4,5 and 1,6,*
1
CF-UM-UP, Centro de Física das Universidades do Minho e Porto, Departamento de Física da Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
2
FP-I3ID, FP-ENAS/CEBIMED, Fernando Pessoa Energy, Environment, and Health Research Unit/Biomedical Research Center, Portugal and Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, 4200-150 Porto, Portugal
3
i3S, Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
4
INEB, Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
5
CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal
6
CBMA, Centro de Biologia Molecular e Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Nejat Düzgüneş
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(8), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081294
Received: 19 July 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 7 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controlled Release of Nanostructured Drug Systems)
Since HIV was first identified, and in a relatively short period of time, AIDS has become one of the most devastating infectious diseases of the 21st century. Classical antiretroviral therapies were a major step forward in disease treatment options, significantly improving the survival rates of HIV-infected individuals. Even though these therapies have greatly improved HIV clinical outcomes, antiretrovirals (ARV) feature biopharmaceutic and pharmacokinetic problems such as poor aqueous solubility, short half-life, and poor penetration into HIV reservoir sites, which contribute to the suboptimal efficacy of these regimens. To overcome some of these issues, novel nanotechnology-based strategies for ARV delivery towards HIV viral reservoirs have been proposed. The current review is focused on the benefits of using lipid-based nanocarriers for tuning the physicochemical properties of ARV to overcome biological barriers upon administration. Furthermore, a correlation between these properties and the potential therapeutic outcomes has been established. Biotechnological advancements using lipid nanocarriers for RNA interference (RNAi) delivery for the treatment of HIV infections were also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: ARV delivery; biotechnology in ARV; biological barriers; lipid emulsions; lipid nanoparticles; liposomes; RNAi and ARV codelivery ARV delivery; biotechnology in ARV; biological barriers; lipid emulsions; lipid nanoparticles; liposomes; RNAi and ARV codelivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Faria, M.J.; Lopes, C.M.; das Neves, J.; Lúcio, M. Lipid Nanocarriers for Anti-HIV Therapeutics: A Focus on Physicochemical Properties and Biotechnological Advances. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1294. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081294

AMA Style

Faria MJ, Lopes CM, das Neves J, Lúcio M. Lipid Nanocarriers for Anti-HIV Therapeutics: A Focus on Physicochemical Properties and Biotechnological Advances. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(8):1294. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081294

Chicago/Turabian Style

Faria, Maria J., Carla M. Lopes, José das Neves, and Marlene Lúcio. 2021. "Lipid Nanocarriers for Anti-HIV Therapeutics: A Focus on Physicochemical Properties and Biotechnological Advances" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 8: 1294. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081294

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