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Immunostimulatory Gene Therapy Using Oncolytic Viruses as Vehicles

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Rudbeck laboratory C11, Dag Hammarskjoldsvag 20, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden
Lokon Pharma AB, Dag Hammarskoldsvag 40c, 75183 Uppsala, Sweden
Academic Editors: Martine L. M. Lamfers and E. Antonio Chiocca
Viruses 2015, 7(11), 5780-5791;
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 16 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses)
Immunostimulatory gene therapy has been developed during the past twenty years. The aim of immunostimulatory gene therapy is to tilt the suppressive tumor microenvironment to promote anti-tumor immunity. Hence, like a Trojan horse, the gene vehicle can carry warriors and weapons into enemy territory to combat the tumor from within. The most promising immune stimulators are those activating and sustaining Th1 responses, but even if potent effects were seen in preclinical models, many clinical trials failed to show objective responses in cancer patients. However, with new tools to control ongoing immunosuppression in cancer patients, immunostimulatory gene therapy is now emerging as an interesting option. In parallel, oncolytic viruses have been shown to be safe in patients. To prolong immune stimulation and to increase efficacy, these two fields are now merging and oncolytic viruses are armed with immunostimulatory transgenes. These novel agents are racing towards approval as established cancer immunotherapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic; adenovirus; gene therapy; immunotherapy; tumor immunology oncolytic; adenovirus; gene therapy; immunotherapy; tumor immunology
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Loskog, A. Immunostimulatory Gene Therapy Using Oncolytic Viruses as Vehicles. Viruses 2015, 7, 5780-5791.

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