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Article

Cross-Resistance of the Codling Moth against Different Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus Is Caused by Two Different but Genetically Linked Resistance Mechanisms

1
Julius Kühn-Institut—Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Biological Control, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miguel López-Ferber
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101952
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 22 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 29 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Pest Management 2.0)
Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is a widely used biological control agent of the codling moth. Recently, however, the codling moth has developed different types of field resistance against CpGV isolates. Whereas type I resistance is Z chromosomal inherited and targeted at the viral gene pe38 of isolate CpGV-M, type II resistance is autosomal inherited and targeted against isolates CpGV-M and CpGV-S. Here, we report that mixtures of CpGV-M and CpGV-S fail to break type II resistance and is expressed at all larval stages. Budded virus (BV) injection experiments circumventing initial midgut infection provided evidence that resistance against CpGV-S is midgut-related, though fluorescence dequenching assay using rhodamine-18 labeled occlusion derived viruses (ODV) could not fully elucidate whether the receptor binding or an intracellular midgut factor is involved. From our peroral and intra-hemocoel infection experiments, we conclude that two different (but genetically linked) resistance mechanisms are responsible for type II resistance in the codling moth: resistance against CpGV-M is systemic whereas a second and/or additional resistance mechanism against CpGV-S is located in the midgut of CpR5M larvae. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus resistance; insects; Cydia pomonella; baculovirus; midgut; bioassay virus resistance; insects; Cydia pomonella; baculovirus; midgut; bioassay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sauer, A.J.; Fritsch, E.; Undorf-Spahn, K.; Iwata, K.; Kleespies, R.G.; Nakai, M.; Jehle, J.A. Cross-Resistance of the Codling Moth against Different Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus Is Caused by Two Different but Genetically Linked Resistance Mechanisms. Viruses 2021, 13, 1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101952

AMA Style

Sauer AJ, Fritsch E, Undorf-Spahn K, Iwata K, Kleespies RG, Nakai M, Jehle JA. Cross-Resistance of the Codling Moth against Different Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus Is Caused by Two Different but Genetically Linked Resistance Mechanisms. Viruses. 2021; 13(10):1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101952

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sauer, Annette J., Eva Fritsch, Karin Undorf-Spahn, Kento Iwata, Regina G. Kleespies, Madoka Nakai, and Johannes A. Jehle. 2021. "Cross-Resistance of the Codling Moth against Different Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus Is Caused by Two Different but Genetically Linked Resistance Mechanisms" Viruses 13, no. 10: 1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101952

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