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Origin of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Outbreak in Cyprus, September 2016

1
Pirbright Institute, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
2
Veterinary Services of Cyprus, Nicosia 1417, Cyprus
3
Met Office, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010096
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
In September 2016, clinical signs, indicative of bluetongue, were observed in sheep in Cyprus. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) was detected in sheep, indicating the first incursion of this serotype into Cyprus. Following virus propagation, Nextera XT DNA libraries were sequenced on the MiSeq instrument. Full-genome sequences were obtained for five isolates CYP2016/01-05 and the percent of nucleotide sequence (% nt) identity between them ranged from 99.92% to 99.95%, which corresponded to a few (2–5) amino acid changes. Based on the complete coding sequence, the Israeli ISR2008/13 (98.42–98.45%) was recognised as the closest relative to CYP2016/01-05. However, the phylogenetic reconstruction of CYP2016/01-05 revealed that the possibility of reassortment in several segments: 4, 7, 9 and 10. Based on the available sequencing data, the incursion BTV-8 into Cyprus most likely occurred from the neighbouring countries (e.g., Israel, Lebanon, Syria, or Jordan), where multiple BTV serotypes were co-circulating rather than from Europe (e.g., France) where a single BTV-8 serotype was dominant. Supporting this hypothesis, atmospheric dispersion modelling identified wind-transport events during July–September that could have allowed the introduction of BTV-8 infected midges from Lebanon, Syria or Israel coastlines into the Larnaca region of Cyprus. View Full-Text
Keywords: bluetongue virus; BTV-8; reassortment; NGS; midge; NAME bluetongue virus; BTV-8; reassortment; NGS; midge; NAME
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3603328
    Link: https://zenodo.org/record/3603328#.XhdcnHd2uhc
    Description: Table S1. Historical reference strains of BTV sequenced during this study and associated Genbank accession number for the genome segments. Figure S1. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for the coding regions of BTV a) VP1 protein (segment-1), b) VP3 protein (segment-3, c) NS1 protein (segment-5), d) VP5 protein (segment-6), and e) NS2 protein (segment-8). Maximum likelihood trees were constructed using IQ-Tree software [25] and the reliability of each tree was estimated by ultrafast bootstrap [26] analysis of 1000 replicates (bootstrap values of < 95% are not displayed). Figure S2. Aggregated trajectory densities of the forward NAME runs for three potential incursions of BTV infected midges to Cyprus. The figures show incursions with: a) a 24-hour flight time from sunset on 2016/09/07; b) a 36-hour flight time from sunrise on 2016/08/30; and c) a 24-hour flight time from sunset on 2016/08/20. Five sources are shown: 1 - northern Syria, 2 - southern Syria and northern Lebanon, 3 - central Lebanon, 4 - southern Lebanon and northern Israel, 5 - central Israel (as in Table 2).
MDPI and ACS Style

Rajko-Nenow, P.; Christodoulou, V.; Thurston, W.; Ropiak, H.M.; Savva, S.; Brown, H.; Qureshi, M.; Alvanitopoulos, K.; Gubbins, S.; Flannery, J.; Batten, C. Origin of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Outbreak in Cyprus, September 2016. Viruses 2020, 12, 96.

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