Next Article in Journal
Evolution of the Piscine orthoreovirus Genome Linked to Emergence of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)
Previous Article in Journal
Herpes Virus, Oral Clinical Signs and QoL: Systematic Review of Recent Data
Open AccessArticle

Transcriptome Analysis Shows That IFN-I Treatment and Concurrent SAV3 Infection Enriches MHC-I Antigen Processing and Presentation Pathways in Atlantic Salmon-Derived Macrophage/Dendritic Cells

Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 369, NO-0102 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050464
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
Type I interferons (IFNs) have been shown to play an important role in shaping adaptive immune responses in addition to their antiviral properties in immune cells. To gain insight into the impact of IFN-I-induced pathways involved in early adaptive immune responses, i.e., antigen-presenting pathways, in an Atlantic salmon-derived (Salmo salar L.) macrophage cell line (TO-cells), we used a comparative de novo transcriptome analysis where cells were treated with IFN-I or kept untreated and concurrently infected with salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3). We found that concurrent treatment of TO-cells with IFN-I and SAV3 infection (SAV3/IFN+) significantly enriched the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) pathway unlike the non-IFN-I treated TO-cells (SAV3/IFN) that had lower expression levels of MHC-I pathway-related genes. Genes such as the proteasomal activator (PA28) and β-2 microglobulin (β2M) were only differentially expressed in the SAV3/IFN+ cells and not in the SAV3/IFN cells. MHC-I pathway genes like heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), transporter of antigen associated proteins (TAPs) and tapasin had higher expression levels in the SAV3/IFN+ cells than in the SAV3/IFN cells. There were no MHC-II pathway-related genes upregulated in SAV3/IFN+-treated cells, and cathepsin S linked to the degradation of endosomal antigens in the MHC-II pathway was downregulated in the SAV3/IFN cells. Overall, our findings show that concurrent IFN-I treatment of TO-cells and SAV3 infection enriched gene expression linked to the MHC-I antigen presentation pathway. Data presented indicate a role of type I IFNs in strengthening antigen processing and presentation that may facilitate activation particularly of CD8+ T-cell responses following SAV3 infection, while SAV3 infection alone downplayed MHC-II pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: antigen; dendritic cells; IFN-I; macrophages; MHC; SAV3; TO-cells antigen; dendritic cells; IFN-I; macrophages; MHC; SAV3; TO-cells
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, C.; Evensen, Ø.; Munang’andu, H.M. Transcriptome Analysis Shows That IFN-I Treatment and Concurrent SAV3 Infection Enriches MHC-I Antigen Processing and Presentation Pathways in Atlantic Salmon-Derived Macrophage/Dendritic Cells. Viruses 2019, 11, 464.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop