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Open AccessArticle

Evolution of the Piscine orthoreovirus Genome Linked to Emergence of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1433 Ås, Norway
3
Faroese Food and Veterinary Authority, National Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases, FO-110 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands
4
Department of Immunology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 0454 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050465
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was first diagnosed in Norway in 1999. The disease is caused by Piscine orthoreovirus-1 (PRV-1). The virus is prevalent in farmed Atlantic salmon, but not always associated with disease. Phylogeny and sequence analyses of 31 PRV-1 genomes collected over a 30-year period from fish with or without HSMI, grouped the viral sequences into two main monophylogenetic clusters, one associated with HSMI and the other with low virulent PRV-1 isolates. A PRV-1 strain from Norway sampled in 1988, a decade before the emergence of HSMI, grouped with the low virulent HSMI cluster. The two distinct monophylogenetic clusters were particularly evident for segments S1 and M2. Only a limited number of amino acids were unique to the association with HSMI, and they all located to S1 and M2 encoded proteins. The observed co-evolution of the S1-M2 pair coincided in time with the emergence of HSMI in Norway, and may have evolved through accumulation of mutations and/or segment reassortment. Sequences of S1-M2 suggest selection of the HSMI associated pair, and that this segment pair has remained almost unchanged in Norwegian salmon aquaculture since 1997. PRV-1 strains from the North American Pacific Coast and Faroe Islands have not undergone this evolution, and are more closely related to the PRV-1 precursor strains not associated with clinical HSMI. View Full-Text
Keywords: PRV-1; Piscine orthoreovirus; HSMI; virulence; reassortment; viral evolution PRV-1; Piscine orthoreovirus; HSMI; virulence; reassortment; viral evolution
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Dhamotharan, K.; Tengs, T.; Wessel, Ø.; Braaen, S.; Nyman, I.B.; Hansen, E.F.; Christiansen, D.H.; Dahle, M.K.; Rimstad, E.; Markussen, T. Evolution of the Piscine orthoreovirus Genome Linked to Emergence of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Viruses 2019, 11, 465.

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