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Porcine Parvovirus Infection Causes Pig Placenta Tissue Damage Involving Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1)-Induced Intrinsic ROS/Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis

1
Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, College of Animal Science and Technology/College of Veterinary Medicine, Hebei Agricultural University, Hebei Engineering and Technology Research Center of Veterinary Biotechnology, Baoding 071000, China
2
Department of Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9093, USA
3
Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Hebei University, Baoding 071000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040389
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
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Abstract

Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is an important pathogen causing reproductive failure in pigs. PPV-induced cell apoptosis has been recently identified as being involved in PPV-induced placental tissue damages resulting in reproductive failure. However, the molecular mechanism was not fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that PPV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) can induce host cell apoptosis and death, thereby indicating the NS1 may play a crucial role in PPV-induced placental tissue damages and reproductive failure. We have found that NS1-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by caspase 9 inhibitor, but not caspase 8 inhibitor, and transfection of NS1 gene into PK-15 cells significantly inhibited mitochondria-associated antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expressions and enhanced proapoptotic molecules Bax, P21, and P53 expressions, suggesting that NS1-induced apoptosis is mainly through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. We also found that both PPV infection and NS1 vector transfection could cause host DNA damage resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2 phases, trigger mitochondrial ROS accumulation resulting in mitochondria damage, and therefore, induce the host cell apoptosis. This study provides a molecular basis for elucidating PPV-induced cell apoptosis and reproductive failure. View Full-Text
Keywords: Porcine parvovirus; NS1 protein; apoptosis reactive oxygen species; mitochondria damage; intrinsic pathway Porcine parvovirus; NS1 protein; apoptosis reactive oxygen species; mitochondria damage; intrinsic pathway
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, J.; Fan, J.; Li, Y.; Liang, S.; Huo, S.; Wang, X.; Zuo, Y.; Cui, D.; Li, W.; Zhong, Z.; Zhong, F. Porcine Parvovirus Infection Causes Pig Placenta Tissue Damage Involving Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1)-Induced Intrinsic ROS/Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis. Viruses 2019, 11, 389.

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