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Specific Interactions between Human Norovirus and Environmental Matrices: Effects on the Virus Ecology

by Mohan Amarasiri 1,* and Daisuke Sano 1,2
1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-06, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan
2
Department of Frontier Science for Advanced Environment, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-06, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030224
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 March 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noroviruses)
Human norovirus is the major cause of non-bacterial epidemic gastroenteritis. Human norovirus binds to environmental solids via specific and non-specific interactions, and several specific receptors for human norovirus have been reported. Among them, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) are the most studied specific receptor. Studies have identified the presence of HBGA-like substances in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of human enteric bacteria present in aquatic environments, gastrointestinal cells, gills, and palps of shellfish, and cell walls, leaves, and veins of lettuce. These HBGA-like substances also interact with human norovirus in a genotype-dependent manner. Specific interactions between human norovirus and environmental matrices can affect norovirus removal, infectivity, inactivation, persistence, and circulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future directions related to the specific interactions between human norovirus and HBGA-like substances in environmental matrices and their possible effects on the fate and circulation of human norovirus. View Full-Text
Keywords: human norovirus; histo-blood group antigens; specific interactions; wastewater; Enterobacter human norovirus; histo-blood group antigens; specific interactions; wastewater; Enterobacter
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Amarasiri, M.; Sano, D. Specific Interactions between Human Norovirus and Environmental Matrices: Effects on the Virus Ecology. Viruses 2019, 11, 224.

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