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Immune Activation, Inflammation, and Non-AIDS Co-Morbidities in HIV-Infected Patients under Long-Term ART

1
Research Unit in Congenital and Perinatal Infections, Academic Department of Pediatrics (DPUO), Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, 00165 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Laboratories, Division of Virology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, 00165 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030200
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Inflammation)
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PDF [1152 KB, uploaded 27 February 2019]
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Abstract

Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) still present persistent chronic immune activation and inflammation. This condition is the result of several factors including thymic dysfunction, persistent antigen stimulation due to low residual viremia, microbial translocation and dysbiosis, caused by the disruption of the gut mucosa, co-infections, and cumulative ART toxicity. All of these factors can create a vicious cycle that does not allow the full control of immune activation and inflammation, leading to an increased risk of developing non-AIDS co-morbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide an overview of the most recent data about HIV-associated inflammation and chronic immune exhaustion in PLWH under effective ART. Furthermore, we discuss new therapy approaches that are currently being tested to reduce the risk of developing inflammation, ART toxicity, and non-AIDS co-morbidities. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; immune activation; premature aging; metabolic syndrome; HIV; ART; non-AIDS co-morbidities inflammation; immune activation; premature aging; metabolic syndrome; HIV; ART; non-AIDS co-morbidities
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Zicari, S.; Sessa, L.; Cotugno, N.; Ruggiero, A.; Morrocchi, E.; Concato, C.; Rocca, S.; Zangari, P.; Manno, E.C.; Palma, P. Immune Activation, Inflammation, and Non-AIDS Co-Morbidities in HIV-Infected Patients under Long-Term ART. Viruses 2019, 11, 200.

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