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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070357

Dengue Virus Induces the Release of sCD40L and Changes in Levels of Membranal CD42b and CD40L Molecules in Human Platelets

1
Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional “Lázaro Cárdenas”, Colonia Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México CP 11340, Mexico
2
Hospital Carlos McGregor, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Colonia del Valle, Ciudad de México CP 03100, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Virología e Inmunovirología, Departamento de Microbiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional “Lázaro Cárdenas”, Colonia Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México CP 11340, México
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Responses in Viral Infections)
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Abstract

Platelets are considered as significant players in innate and adaptive immune responses. The adhesion molecules they express, including P-selectin, CD40L, and CD42b, facilitate interactions with many cellular effectors. Upon interacting with a pathogen, platelets rapidly express and enhance their adhesion molecules, and secrete cytokines and chemokines. A similar phenomenon occurs after exposure of platelets to thrombin, an agonist extensively used for in vitro activation of these cells. It was recently reported that the dengue virus not only interacts with platelets but possibly infects them, which triggers an increased expression of adhesion molecule P-selectin as well as secretion of IL-1β. In the present study, surface molecules of platelets like CD40L, CD42b, CD62P, and MHC class I were evaluated at 4 h of interaction with dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2), finding that DENV-2 induced a sharp rise in the membrane expression of all these molecules. At 2 and 4 h of DENV-2 stimulation of platelets, a significantly greater secretion of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was found (versus basal levels) as well as cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α. Compared to basal, DENV-2 elicited more than two-fold increase in these cytokines. Compared to the thrombin-induced response, the level generated by DENV-2 was much higher for GM-CSF, IL-6, and TNF-α. All these events induced by DENV end up in conspicuous morphological changes observed in platelets by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, very different from those elicited by thrombin in a more physiological scenery. View Full-Text
Keywords: Immune response; platelets; dengue virus; CD40L Immune response; platelets; dengue virus; CD40L
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Núñez-Avellaneda, D.; Mosso-Pani, M.A.; Sánchez-Torres, L.E.; Castro-Mussot, M.E.; Corona-de la Peña, N.A.; Salazar, M.I. Dengue Virus Induces the Release of sCD40L and Changes in Levels of Membranal CD42b and CD40L Molecules in Human Platelets. Viruses 2018, 10, 357.

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