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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020077

Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada
2
Centre for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
3
Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, Canada
5
Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, Canada
6
Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada
7
Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
8
CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada
9
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
10
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada
11
Oak Tree Clinic, BC Women’s Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
12
Women’s Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
13
Department of Psychology, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Homage to Mark Wainberg)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2471 KB, uploaded 11 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Long-term outcomes of perinatal exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are unknown. However, both HIV antiretroviral therapy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with mitochondrial alterations. Leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content can serve as a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. In this cross-sectional, nested case-control study, HEU children with ASD were matched approximately 1:3 on age, sex, and ethnicity to HEU children without ASD, HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) controls, and HUU children with ASD. Leukocyte mtDNA content was measured using quantitative PCR. Among 299 HEU in this study, 14 (4.7%) were diagnosed with ASD, which is higher than the general population prevalence estimates. HEU children without ASD and HUU children with ASD had higher mtDNA content than HUU controls. HEU children with ASD had significantly higher mtDNA content than all other study groups. Our results suggest a clear association between elevated leukocyte mtDNA content and both HEU and ASD status. This may implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a contributor to the high ASD prevalence observed in our cohort. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiretroviral therapy; genetics; neurodevelopment; prophylaxis; mitochondria; HIV; pediatrics antiretroviral therapy; genetics; neurodevelopment; prophylaxis; mitochondria; HIV; pediatrics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Budd, M.A.; Calli, K.; Samson, L.; Bowes, J.; Hsieh, A.Y.Y.; Forbes, J.C.; Bitnun, A.; Singer, J.; Kakkar, F.; Alimenti, A.; Maan, E.J.; Lewis, M.E.S.; Gentile, C.; Côté, H.C.; Brophy, J.C. Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Viruses 2018, 10, 77.

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