Next Article in Journal
Ortet Age and Clonal Effects on Growth and Market Value of Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri) Grafts as Christmas Trees
Next Article in Special Issue
Spatial Distribution of Biomass and Woody Litter for Bio-Energy in Biscay (Spain)
Previous Article in Journal
Tamarix microRNA Profiling Reveals New Insight into Salt Tolerance
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Spatially Explicit Method to Assess the Economic Suitability of a Forest Road Network for Timber Harvest in Steep Terrain
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2018, 9(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040181

Traffic-Induced Changes and Processes in Forest Road Aggregate Particle-Size Distributions

1
Department of Environment and Forest Resources, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
2
School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
3
US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 1221 South Main Street, Moscow, ID 83843-4211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations, Engineering and Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [57041 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Traffic can alter forest road aggregate material in various ways, such as by crushing, mixing it with subgrade material, and sweeping large-size, loose particles (gravel) toward the outside of the road. Understanding the changes and physical processes of the aggregate is essential to mitigate sediment production from forest roads and reduce road maintenance efforts. We compared the particle-size distributions of forest road aggregate from the Clearwater National Forest in Idaho, USA in three vertical layers (upper, middle, and bottom of the road aggregate), three horizontal locations (tire track, shoulder, and half-way between them), and three traffic uses (none, light (no logging vehicles), and heavy (logging vehicles and equipment)) using Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Light traffic appears to cause aggregate crushing where vehicle tires passed and caused sweeping on the road surface. Heavy traffic caused aggregate crushing at all vertical and horizontal locations, and subgrade mixing with the bottom layer at the shoulder location. Logging vehicles and heavy equipment with wide axles drove on the shoulder and exerted enough stress to cause subgrade mixing. These results can help identify the sediment source and define adequate mitigation measures to reduce sediment production from forest roads and reduce road maintenance efforts by providing information for best management practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: aggregate crushing; particle-size distribution; road aggregate; subgrade mixing; sweeping aggregate crushing; particle-size distribution; road aggregate; subgrade mixing; sweeping
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rhee, H.; Fridley, J.; Page-Dumroese, D. Traffic-Induced Changes and Processes in Forest Road Aggregate Particle-Size Distributions. Forests 2018, 9, 181.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top