Next Article in Journal
Comparison of the Economic Value of Urban Trees through Surveys with Photographs in Two Seasons
Next Article in Special Issue
Ten Years of Monitoring Illustrates a Cascade of Effects of White Pine Blister Rust and Focuses Whitebark Pine Restoration in the Canadian Rocky and Columbia Mountains
Previous Article in Journal
Predicting Potential Fire Severity Using Vegetation, Topography and Surface Moisture Availability in a Eurasian Boreal Forest Landscape
Previous Article in Special Issue
Historic Frequency and Severity of Fire in Whitebark Pine Forests of the Cascade Mountain Range, USA
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Pinus albicaulis Engelm. (Whitebark Pine) in Mixed-Species Stands throughout Its US Range: Broad-Scale Indicators of Extent and Recent Decline

1
Inventory & Monitoring Program, Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 507 25th St., Ogden, UT 84401, USA
2
Resource Monitoring and Assessment, Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 1220 SW 3rd Avenue, Suite 1400, Portland, OR 97204, USA, [email protected]
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2018, 9(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9030131
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Restoration of Whitebark Pine)
We used data collected from >1400 plots by a national forest inventory to quantify population-level indicators for a tree species of concern. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) has recently experienced high mortality throughout its US range, where we assessed the area of land with whitebark pine present, size-class distribution of individual whitebark pine, growth rates, and mortality rates, all with respect to dominant forest type. As of 2016, 51% of all standing whitebark pine trees in the US were dead. Dead whitebark pines outnumbered live ones—and whitebark pine mortality outpaced growth—in all size classes ≥22.8 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), across all forest types. Although whitebark pine occurred across 4.1 million ha in the US, the vast majority of this area (85%) and of the total number of whitebark pine seedlings (72%) fell within forest types other than the whitebark pine type. Standardized growth of whitebark pines was most strongly correlated with the relative basal area of whitebark pine trees (rho = 0.67; p < 0.01), while both standardized growth and mortality were moderately correlated with relative whitebark pine stem density (rho = 0.39 and 0.40; p = 0.031 and p < 0.01, respectively). Neither growth nor mortality were well correlated with total stand basal area, total stem density, or stand mean diameter. The abundance, extent, and relative growth vs. mortality rates of whitebark pine in multiple forest types presents opportunities for management to encourage whitebark pine recruitment in mixed-species stands. The lodgepole pine forest type contained more whitebark pine seedlings (35%) than any other forest type, suggesting that this forest type represents a potential management target for silvicultural treatments that seek to facilitate the recruitment of whitebark pine seedlings into larger size classes. National forest inventories in other countries may use a similar approach to assess species of concern. View Full-Text
Keywords: disturbance; five-needle pines; forest management; mortality; growth; forest inventory disturbance; five-needle pines; forest management; mortality; growth; forest inventory
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Goeking, S.A.; Izlar, D.K. Pinus albicaulis Engelm. (Whitebark Pine) in Mixed-Species Stands throughout Its US Range: Broad-Scale Indicators of Extent and Recent Decline. Forests 2018, 9, 131.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop