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Forests 2018, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9010025

Ash Dieback on Sample Points of the National Forest Inventory in South-Western Germany

1
Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (Julius Kuehn Institute), Messeweg 11/12, Braunschweig 38104, Germany
2
Department of Forest Health, Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, Wonnhaldestr. 4, 79100 Freiburg, Germany
3
Biometrics and Informatics, Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, Wonnhaldestr. 4, 79100 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract

The alien invasive pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus causes large-scale decline of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior). We assessed ash dieback in Germany and identified factors that were associated with this disease. Our assessment was based on a 2015 sampling of national forest inventory plots that represent a supra-regional area. In the time from 2012 to 2015, the number of regrown ash trees corresponded to only 42% of the number of trees that had been harvested or died. Severe defoliation was recorded for almost 40% of the living trees in 2015, and more than half of the crowns mainly consisted of epicormic shoots. Necroses were present in 24% of root collars. A total of 14% of the trees were in sound condition, which sum up to only 7% of the timber volume. On average, trees of a higher social status or with a larger diameter at breast height were healthier. Collar necroses were less prevalent at sites with a higher inclination of terrain, but there was no evidence for an influence of climatic variables on collar necroses. The disease was less severe at sites with smaller proportions of the basal area of ash compared to the total basal area of all trees and in the north-eastern part of the area of investigation. The regeneration of ash decreased drastically. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fraxinus excelsior; ash dieback; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; national forest inventory; disease progression; invasive pathogen; crown defoliation; collar necrosis; regeneration Fraxinus excelsior; ash dieback; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; national forest inventory; disease progression; invasive pathogen; crown defoliation; collar necrosis; regeneration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Enderle, R.; Metzler, B.; Riemer, U.; Kändler, G. Ash Dieback on Sample Points of the National Forest Inventory in South-Western Germany. Forests 2018, 9, 25.

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