Next Article in Journal
The Role of Environmental Filtering in Structuring Appalachian Tree Communities: Topographic Influences on Functional Diversity Are Mediated through Soil Characteristics
Next Article in Special Issue
Challenges and Opportunities for North American Hardwood Manufacturers to Adopt Customization Strategies in an Era of Increased Competition
Previous Article in Journal
The Carbon Dynamics of Dry Tropical Afromontane Forest Ecosystems in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Towards a Theoretical Construct for Modelling Smallholders’ Forestland-Use Decisions: What Can We Learn from Agriculture and Forest Economics?
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Forests 2018, 9(1), 20;

Adaptation to Climate Change in Forestry: A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA)

Laboratory of Forest Economics (LEF), Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food and Environmental Sciences (AgroParisTech), National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 54000 Nancy, France
Freiburger Str. 24, 79112 Freiburg, Germany
Forestry Economics and Forest Planning, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 6 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue At the Frontiers of Knowledge in Forest Economics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1108 KB, uploaded 6 January 2018]   |  


We analyze economic perspectives of forest adaptation to risk attributes, caused mostly by climate change. We construct a database with 89 systematically chosen articles, dealing simultaneously with climate, adaptation, risk and economy. We classify the database with regard to 18 variables bearing on the characteristics of the paper, the description of the risk and the adaptation strategy, the topic and the corresponding results. To achieve a “high level-of-evidence”, we realize a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify which variables were found in combination with one other in the literature and make distinct groupings affecting adaptive decisions. We identify three groups: (i) profit and production; (ii) microeconomic risk-handling; and (iii) decision and behavior. The first group includes economic costs and benefits as the driver of adaptation and prioritizes simulation, and a mix of theoretical and empirical economic approach. The second group distinctly involves risk-related issues, in particular its management by adaptation. The third group gathers a large set of social and behavioral variables affecting management decisions collected through questionnaires. Such an approach allows the identification of gaps in the literature, concerning the impact of owners’ preferences towards risk and uncertainty regarding adaptation decisions, the fact that adaptation was often reduced in an attempt to adapt to the increasing risk of wildfire, or the existence of a regional bias. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptation strategies; climate change; risk; economics adaptation strategies; climate change; risk; economics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Brunette, M.; Bourke, R.; Hanewinkel, M.; Yousefpour, R. Adaptation to Climate Change in Forestry: A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Forests 2018, 9, 20.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top