Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Site Selection
2.2. Field Sampling
2.3. Isolation and Identification of Caliciopsis pinea
2.4. Statistical Analyses
Conflicts of Interest
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|Soil Group||Soil Properties and Interpretations||Brief Description|
|Very dry||NHFSG = 1C|
Drainage Class = excessively drained
Flooding Frequency = none or very rare
|Soils are coarse textured and have a significant amount (>35%) of gravel and are somewhat excessively drained or excessively drained. Fertility and soil moisture is limiting for hardwoods but may produce high quality softwoods. Pine should dominate with Pinus rigida P. Mill. and P. resinosa Aiton.|
|Dry||NHFSG = 1C|
Drainage class = somewhat excessively drained (NH and ME), and well-drained (ME only)
Flooding frequency = none, very rare, rare
|Soils are coarse textured with only a small amount (10%) of gravel and are somewhat excessively drained. Fertility and soil moisture is limiting for hardwoods but may produce high quality softwoods. No apparent water table. Pine should dominate with oak and beech.|
|Loamy||NHFSG = 1B|
Drainage class = well drained
Flooding frequency = none, rare, occasional
|Loamy sand to loamy textures (with or without gravel/cobble). Not moderately well drained or wetter. Productive soils with adequate, but not excessive, soil moisture.|
|Shallow||NHFSG = 1A, 1B, 1C, or 2B|
Shallow soils and soils with layer restricting water movement and root growth (ME only)
|Wetter soils. Soils are considered poor for most plant growth due to excess moisture or shallow depth. These soils have features (bedrock or dense sub-surface layer) restricting movement of water and root growth—no additional grouping by drainage class or flooding frequency.|
|Sample||Parameter||F-test (Degrees of Freedom = df)||p-Value|
|Live trees (>11.5 cm DBH) in sawtimber (>23 cm mean stand diameter) stands sampled in 2015||Soil||48.81 (3, 46)||<0.0001|
|Stocking||59.56 (1, 48)||<0.0001|
|Live trees in poletimber (11.5 to 23 cm mean stand diameter) stands sampled in 2016||Soil||42.79 (3, 7)||<0.0001|
|Stocking||45.79 (1, 9)||<0.0001|
|Seedlings (>30.5 cm height, and <2.54 cm DBH) in poletimber stands sampled in 2016||Soil||859.01 (3, 3)||<0.0001|
|Stocking||14,248.3 (1, 5)||<0.0001|
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Munck, I.A.; Luther, T.; Wyka, S.; Keirstead, D.; McCracken, K.; Ostrofsky, W.; Searles, W.; Lombard, K.; Weimer, J.; Allen, B. Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L. Forests 2016, 7, 269. https://doi.org/10.3390/f7110269
Munck IA, Luther T, Wyka S, Keirstead D, McCracken K, Ostrofsky W, Searles W, Lombard K, Weimer J, Allen B. Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L. Forests. 2016; 7(11):269. https://doi.org/10.3390/f7110269Chicago/Turabian Style
Munck, Isabel A, Thomas Luther, Stephen Wyka, Donald Keirstead, Kimberly McCracken, William Ostrofsky, Wayne Searles, Kyle Lombard, Jennifer Weimer, and Bruce Allen. 2016. "Soil and Stocking Effects on Caliciopsis Canker of Pinus strobus L." Forests 7, no. 11: 269. https://doi.org/10.3390/f7110269