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Analysis of the Social-Ecological Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Ghana: Application of the DPSIR Framework

1
Department of Spatial Planning, Institute of Management, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Vazovova 5, 812 43 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Department of the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Geographic Science, University of Energy and Natural Resources (UENR), 214 Sunyani, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert G. Wagner
Forests 2021, 12(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040409
Received: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 29 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics, Policy, and Social Science)
Globally, forests provide several functions and services to support humans’ well-being and the mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The services that forests provide enable the forest-dependent people and communities to meet their livelihood needs and well-being. Nevertheless, the world’s forests face a twin environmental problem of deforestation and forest degradation (D&FD), resulting in ubiquitous depletion of forest biodiversity and ecosystem services and eventual loss of forest cover. Ghana, like any tropical forest developing country, is not immune to these human-caused D&FD. This paper reviews Ghana’s D&FD driven by a plethora of pressures, despite many forest policies and interventions to ensure sustainable management and forest use. The review is important as Ghana is experiencing an annual D&FD rate of 2%, equivalent to 135,000 hectares loss of forest cover. Although some studies have focused on the causes of D&FD on Ghana’ forests, they failed to show the chain of causal links of drivers that cause D&FD. This review fills the knowledge and practice gap by adopting the Driver-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) analytical framework to analyse the literature-based sources of causes D&FD in Ghana. Specifically, the analysis identified agriculture expansion, cocoa farming expansion, illegal logging, illegal mining, population growth and policy failures and lapses as the key drivers of Ghana’s D&FD. The study uses the DPSIR analytical framework to show the chain of causal links that lead to the country’s D&FD and highlights the numerous interventions required to reverse and halt the ubiquitous perpetual trend of D&FD in Ghana. Similar tropical forest countries experiencing D&FD will find the review most useful to curtail the menace. View Full-Text
Keywords: social-ecological; Ghana; high forest zones (HFZs); deforestation & forest degradation (D&FD); DPSIR framework social-ecological; Ghana; high forest zones (HFZs); deforestation & forest degradation (D&FD); DPSIR framework
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kyere-Boateng, R.; Marek, M.V. Analysis of the Social-Ecological Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Ghana: Application of the DPSIR Framework. Forests 2021, 12, 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040409

AMA Style

Kyere-Boateng R, Marek MV. Analysis of the Social-Ecological Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Ghana: Application of the DPSIR Framework. Forests. 2021; 12(4):409. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040409

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kyere-Boateng, Richard, and Michal V. Marek 2021. "Analysis of the Social-Ecological Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Ghana: Application of the DPSIR Framework" Forests 12, no. 4: 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040409

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