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Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Apple P3A-Type ATPase Genes, with Implications for Alkaline Stress Responses

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas/Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Forests 2020, 11(3), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030292
Received: 4 January 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 5 March 2020 / Published: 6 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
The P3A-type ATPases play crucial roles in various physiological processes via the generation of a transmembrane H+ gradient (∆pH). However, the P3A-type ATPase superfamily in apple remains relatively uncharacterized. In this study, 15 apple P3A-type ATPase genes were identified based on the new GDDH13 draft genome sequence. The exon-intron organization of these genes, the physical and chemical properties, and conserved motifs of the encoded enzymes were investigated. Analyses of the chromosome localization and ω values of the apple P3A-type ATPase genes revealed the duplicated genes were influenced by purifying selection pressure. Six clades and frequent old duplication events were detected. Moreover, the significance of differences in the evolutionary rates of the P3A-type ATPase genes were revealed. An expression analysis indicated that all of the P3A-type ATPase genes were specifically expressed in more than one tissue. The expression of one P3A-type ATPase gene (MD15G1108400) was significantly upregulated in response to alkaline stress. Furthermore, a subcellular localization assay indicated that MD15G1108400 is targeted to the plasma membrane. These results imply that MD15G1108400 may be involved in responses to alkaline stress. Our data provide insights into the molecular characteristics and evolutionary patterns of the apple P3A-type ATPase gene family and provide a theoretical foundation for future in-depth functional characterizations of P3A-type ATPase genes under alkaline conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apple; P3A-type ATPase; evolutionary pattern; expression pattern; subcellular localization; alkaline stress Apple; P3A-type ATPase; evolutionary pattern; expression pattern; subcellular localization; alkaline stress
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Ma, B.; Gao, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, H.; Zhu, L.; Su, J.; Li, C.; Li, M.; Ma, F.; Yuan, Y. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Apple P3A-Type ATPase Genes, with Implications for Alkaline Stress Responses. Forests 2020, 11, 292.

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