Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. is one of the most morphologically and genetically variable Eucalyptus species. Growth, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle susceptibility, pilodyn penetration and other traits up to age 36 months were assessed in a seed source/family trial in China comprising 112 seedlots representing five natural stand and six exotic seed sources. Genetic diversity and population structure of this trial population were also analyzed using 48 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The key objective was to examine whether the genomic data could provide value over information obtained from just quantitative trait data. Significant genetic variation was found among seed sources and among families within seed sources for most quantitative traits. The ratio of variance among seed sources to variance among families within seed sources, based on variances estimated from quantitative trait data, varied from 0.1% (height at 9 months) up to 75.2% (bark thickness). Equivalent ratios estimated from the AMOVA on SSR loci data were similar for height (ages 24 and 36 months) and also pilodyn penetration at 36 months, but not for 9-month height or 36-month bark thickness. From 48 SSR loci examined, the genetic differentiation coefficient (among seed sources) was 0.086, indicating low genetic differentiation among seed sources. While overall genetic diversity in the trial population examined was high, the levels within the different seed sources varied markedly. Prior to this study, genetic distances among families from the three exotic seed sources (from domesticated Indian populations) in the trial, along with their genetic distances from, and relatedness to, families from five natural stand seed sources (Australian) in the trial were unknown. The SSR loci data removed uncertainties and revealed that the exotic sources increased the breadth of genetic origins represented in the trial population—information that could not have been obtained from just the quantitative trait data.
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