In recent decades, workshop scheduling has excessively focused on time-related indicators, while ignoring environmental metrics. With the advent of sustainable manufacturing, the energy-aware scheduling problem has been attracting more and more attention from scholars and researchers. In this study, we investigate an energy-aware flexible job shop scheduling problem to reduce the total energy consumption in the workshop. For the considered problem, the energy consumption model is first built to formulate the energy consumption, such as processing energy consumption, idle energy consumption, setup energy consumption and common energy consumption. Then, a mathematical model is established with the criterion to minimize the total energy consumption. Secondly, a modified migrating birds optimization (MMBO) algorithm is proposed to solve the model. In the proposed MMBO, a population initialization scheme is presented to ensure the initial solutions with a certain quality and diversity. Five neighborhood structures are employed to create neighborhood solutions according to the characteristics of the problem. Furthermore, both a local search method and an aging-based re-initialization mechanism are developed to avoid premature convergence. Finally, the experimental results validate that the proposed algorithm is effective for the problem under study.
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