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Open AccessArticle

A Grey-Box Ensemble Model Exploiting Black-Box Accuracy and White-Box Intrinsic Interpretability

1
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Patras, GR 265-00 Patras, Greece
2
Department of Mathematics, University of Patras, GR 265-00 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Algorithms 2020, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/a13010017
Received: 14 November 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 5 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ensemble Algorithms and Their Applications)
Machine learning has emerged as a key factor in many technological and scientific advances and applications. Much research has been devoted to developing high performance machine learning models, which are able to make very accurate predictions and decisions on a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, we still seek to understand and explain how these models work and make decisions. Explainability and interpretability in machine learning is a significant issue, since in most of real-world problems it is considered essential to understand and explain the model’s prediction mechanism in order to trust it and make decisions on critical issues. In this study, we developed a Grey-Box model based on semi-supervised methodology utilizing a self-training framework. The main objective of this work is the development of a both interpretable and accurate machine learning model, although this is a complex and challenging task. The proposed model was evaluated on a variety of real world datasets from the crucial application domains of education, finance and medicine. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model performing comparable to a Black-Box and considerably outperforming single White-Box models, while at the same time remains as interpretable as a White-Box model. View Full-Text
Keywords: explainable machine learning; interpretable machine learning; semi-supervised learning; self-training algorithms; ensemble learning; black, white and grey box models explainable machine learning; interpretable machine learning; semi-supervised learning; self-training algorithms; ensemble learning; black, white and grey box models
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Pintelas, E.; Livieris, I.E.; Pintelas, P. A Grey-Box Ensemble Model Exploiting Black-Box Accuracy and White-Box Intrinsic Interpretability. Algorithms 2020, 13, 17.

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