Next Article in Journal
Thermally Activated Composite with Two-Way and Multi-Shape Memory Effects
Next Article in Special Issue
Vanadium Pentoxide-Based Composite Synthesized Using Microwave Water Plasma for Cathode Material in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries
Previous Article in Journal
New Coating Technique of Ceramic Implants with Different Glass Solder Matrices for Improved Osseointegration-Mechanical Investigations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimization of Microwave-Based Heating of Cellulosic Biomass Using Taguchi Method
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4011-4030; doi:10.3390/ma6094011
Article

Observations of Ball-Lightning-Like Plasmoids Ejected from Silicon by Localized Microwaves

1
,
1,* , 2
,
1
,
3
,
4
,
1
,
3
,
4
 and
5
1 Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel 2 Wolfson Applied Materials Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel 3 Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR N 6251 du CNRS, Université de Rennes I, 35042, Rennes cedex, France 4 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, F-38043, France 5 Wing Ltd., Odessa, 65000, Ukraine
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Processing of Materials)
Download PDF [3442 KB, 23 September 2013; original version 11 September 2013]

Abstract

This paper presents experimental characterization of plasmoids (fireballs) obtained by directing localized microwave power (<1 kW at 2.45 GHz) onto a silicon-based substrate in a microwave cavity. The plasmoid emerges up from the hotspot created in the solid substrate into the air within the microwave cavity. The experimental diagnostics employed for the fireball characterization in this study include measurements of microwave scattering, optical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Various characteristics of these plasmoids as dusty plasma are drawn by a theoretical analysis of the experimental observations. Aggregations of dust particles within the plasmoid are detected at nanometer and micrometer scales by both in-situ SAXS and ex-situ SEM measurements. The resemblance of these plasmoids to the natural ball-lightning (BL) phenomenon is discussed with regard to silicon nano-particle clustering and formation of slowly-oxidized silicon micro-spheres within the BL. Potential applications and practical derivatives of this study (e.g., direct conversion of solids to powders, material identification by breakdown spectroscopy (MIBS), thermite ignition, and combustion) are discussed.
Keywords: ball lightning; plasmoids; microwave heating; localized microwaves; dusty plasma; complex plasma; atmospheric plasma; silicon spheres, nanoparticles ball lightning; plasmoids; microwave heating; localized microwaves; dusty plasma; complex plasma; atmospheric plasma; silicon spheres, nanoparticles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Meir, Y.; Jerby, E.; Barkay, Z.; Ashkenazi, D.; Mitchell, J.B.; Narayanan, T.; Eliaz, N.; LeGarrec, J.-L.; Sztucki, M.; Meshcheryakov, O. Observations of Ball-Lightning-Like Plasmoids Ejected from Silicon by Localized Microwaves. Materials 2013, 6, 4011-4030.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert