Next Article in Journal
Effect of Inconel 718 Filler on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 690 Joint by Ultrasonic Frequency Pulse Assisted TIG Welding
Previous Article in Journal
Inhomogeneous Strain Behaviors of the High Strength Pipeline Girth Weld under Longitudinal Loading
 
 
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Background:
This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon.
Article

Effect of Water-Soluble Polymers on the Rheology and Microstructure of Polymer-Modified Geopolymer Glass-Ceramics

by
John M. Migliore
1,2,3,
Patrick Hewitt
2,3,
Theo J. Dingemans
1,
Davide L. Simone
2 and
William Jacob Monzel
2,*
1
Department of Applied Physical Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXNP, Dayton, OH 45324, USA
3
UES, Inc. A BlueHalo Company, Dayton, OH 45432, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2024, 17(12), 2856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122856
Submission received: 7 May 2024 / Revised: 4 June 2024 / Accepted: 7 June 2024 / Published: 11 June 2024

Abstract

This work explores the effects of rigid (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 wt. %) and semi-flexible (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 wt. %) all-aromatic polyelectrolyte reinforcements as rheological and morphological modifiers for preparing phosphate geopolymer glass–ceramic composites. Polymer-modified aluminosilicate–phosphate geopolymer resins were prepared by high-shear mixing of a metakaolin powder with 9M phosphoric acid and two all-aromatic, sulfonated polyamides. Polymer loadings between 0.5–2.5 wt. % exhibited gel-like behavior and an increase in the modulus of the geopolymer resin as a function of polymer concentration. The incorporation of a 0.5 wt. % rigid polymer resulted in a three-fold increase in viscosity relative to the control phosphate geopolymer resin. Hardening, dehydration, and crystallization of the geopolymer resins to glass-ceramics was achieved through mold casting, curing at 80 °C for 24 h, and a final heat treatment up to 260 °C. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a decrease in microstructure porosity in the range of 0.78 m to 0.31 m for geopolymer plaques containing loadings of 0.5 wt. % rigid polymer. Nano-porosity values of the composites were measured between 10–40 nm using nitrogen adsorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method) and transmission electron microscopy. Nanoindentation studies revealed geopolymer composites with Young’s modulus values of 15–24 GPa and hardness values of 1–2 GPa, suggesting an increase in modulus and hardness with polymer incorporation. Additional structural and chemical analyses were performed via thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared radiation, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the processing, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of water-soluble, high-performance polyelectrolyte-reinforced geopolymer composites.
Keywords: geopolymer; polymer-modified; composites; glass-ceramics; Sol-gel processes; microstructure-prefiring; porosity; rheology; hybrid; high-performance geopolymer; polymer-modified; composites; glass-ceramics; Sol-gel processes; microstructure-prefiring; porosity; rheology; hybrid; high-performance

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Migliore, J.M.; Hewitt, P.; Dingemans, T.J.; Simone, D.L.; Monzel, W.J. Effect of Water-Soluble Polymers on the Rheology and Microstructure of Polymer-Modified Geopolymer Glass-Ceramics. Materials 2024, 17, 2856. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122856

AMA Style

Migliore JM, Hewitt P, Dingemans TJ, Simone DL, Monzel WJ. Effect of Water-Soluble Polymers on the Rheology and Microstructure of Polymer-Modified Geopolymer Glass-Ceramics. Materials. 2024; 17(12):2856. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122856

Chicago/Turabian Style

Migliore, John M., Patrick Hewitt, Theo J. Dingemans, Davide L. Simone, and William Jacob Monzel. 2024. "Effect of Water-Soluble Polymers on the Rheology and Microstructure of Polymer-Modified Geopolymer Glass-Ceramics" Materials 17, no. 12: 2856. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122856

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop