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Article

Inhomogeneous Strain Behaviors of the High Strength Pipeline Girth Weld under Longitudinal Loading

1
School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
Baosteel Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201900, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2024, 17(12), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122855
Submission received: 14 May 2024 / Revised: 3 June 2024 / Accepted: 7 June 2024 / Published: 11 June 2024
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Joining and Additive Manufacturing)

Abstract

Unforeseen failures in girth welds present a significant challenge for the pipeline industry. This study utilizes 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) assisted cross-weld tensile testing to analyze the strain response of high-strength thick-walled pipelines, providing essential insights into the strain migration and fracture mechanisms specific to girth welds. The results reveal that the welding process significantly affects the mechanical distribution within the girth weld. The tested Shielded Metal Arc Welded (SMAW-ed) pipe exhibited undermatched girth welds due to high heat input, while Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) introduced a narrower weld and Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) with higher hardness than the base metal, indicative of overmatched girth welds. Strain migration, resulting from a combination of metallurgical heterogeneous materials and geometrical reinforcement strengthening, progressed from the softer HAZ to the base metal in the SMAW-ed sample with reinforcement, ultimately leading to fracture in the base metal. In contrast, the GMAW-ed sample shows no strain migration. Reinforcement significantly improves the tensile strength of girth welds and effectively prevents failure in the weld region. Sufficient reinforcement is crucial for minimizing the risk of failure in critical areas such as the weld metal and HAZ, particularly in SMAW-ed pipes.
Keywords: pipeline girth weld; cross-weld tensile test; digital image correlation; reinforcement; strain migration pipeline girth weld; cross-weld tensile test; digital image correlation; reinforcement; strain migration

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Ma, Y.; Liu, S.; Su, L.; Fletcher, L.; Li, H.; Wang, B.; Zhu, H. Inhomogeneous Strain Behaviors of the High Strength Pipeline Girth Weld under Longitudinal Loading. Materials 2024, 17, 2855. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122855

AMA Style

Zhang Z, Ma Y, Liu S, Su L, Fletcher L, Li H, Wang B, Zhu H. Inhomogeneous Strain Behaviors of the High Strength Pipeline Girth Weld under Longitudinal Loading. Materials. 2024; 17(12):2855. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122855

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Zhihao, Yan Ma, Shuo Liu, Lihong Su, Leigh Fletcher, Huijun Li, Baosen Wang, and Hongtao Zhu. 2024. "Inhomogeneous Strain Behaviors of the High Strength Pipeline Girth Weld under Longitudinal Loading" Materials 17, no. 12: 2855. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122855

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