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The Critical Raw Materials in Cutting Tools for Machining Applications: A Review

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ENEA–Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Brindisi Research Centre, S.S. 7 Appia–km 706, 72100 Brindisi, Italy
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School of Engineering, London South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London SE1 0AA, UK
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School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK4 30AL, UK
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ENEA–Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome, Italy
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Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Federico Garcia Lorca 18, ES-33007 Oviedo, Spain
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Łukasiewicz Research Network, Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 30-011 Krakow, Poland
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Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Faculty of Civil Engineering, Scientific Laboratory of Powder Materials/Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Aeronautics, 6A Kipsalas str, lab. 110, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
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Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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IFIMUP—Institute of Physics for Advanced Materials, Nanotechnology and Photonics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto, 687 Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Nanoelectronics, Sumy State University, 2 Rymskogo-Korsakova st., 40007 Sumy, Ukraine
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061377 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Powder Metallurgy Technologies)
A variety of cutting tool materials are used for the contact mode mechanical machining of components under extreme conditions of stress, temperature and/or corrosion, including operations such as drilling, milling turning and so on. These demanding conditions impose a seriously high strain rate (an order of magnitude higher than forming), and this limits the useful life of cutting tools, especially single-point cutting tools. Tungsten carbide is the most popularly used cutting tool material, and unfortunately its main ingredients of W and Co are at high risk in terms of material supply and are listed among critical raw materials (CRMs) for EU, for which sustainable use should be addressed. This paper highlights the evolution and the trend of use of CRMs) in cutting tools for mechanical machining through a timely review. The focus of this review and its motivation was driven by the four following themes: (i) the discussion of newly emerging hybrid machining processes offering performance enhancements and longevity in terms of tool life (laser and cryogenic incorporation); (ii) the development and synthesis of new CRM substitutes to minimise the use of tungsten; (iii) the improvement of the recycling of worn tools; and (iv) the accelerated use of modelling and simulation to design long-lasting tools in the Industry-4.0 framework, circular economy and cyber secure manufacturing. It may be noted that the scope of this paper is not to represent a completely exhaustive document concerning cutting tools for mechanical processing, but to raise awareness and pave the way for innovative thinking on the use of critical materials in mechanical processing tools with the aim of developing smart, timely control strategies and mitigation measures to suppress the use of CRMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical raw materials; cutting tools; new materials; new machining methods; modelling and simulation critical raw materials; cutting tools; new materials; new machining methods; modelling and simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rizzo, A.; Goel, S.; Luisa Grilli, M.; Iglesias, R.; Jaworska, L.; Lapkovskis, V.; Novak, P.; Postolnyi, B.O.; Valerini, D. The Critical Raw Materials in Cutting Tools for Machining Applications: A Review. Materials 2020, 13, 1377.

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