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Influence of Arc Power on Keyhole-Induced Porosity in Laser + GMAW Hybrid Welding of Aluminum Alloy: Numerical and Experimental Studies

1
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, China
2
State Grid Shandong Electric Power Research Institute, Jinan 250065, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081328
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Laser Technologies and Applications)
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Abstract

A three-dimensional numerical model is used to simulate heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena in fiber laser + gas metal arc welding (GMAW) hybrid welding of an aluminum alloy, which incorporates three-phase coupling and is able to depict the keyhole dynamic behavior and formation process of the keyhole-induced porosity. The temperature profiles and fluid flow fields for different arc powers are calculated and the percent porosities of weld beads were also examined under different conditions by X-ray non-destructive testing (NDT). The results showed that the computed results were in agreement with the experimental data. For hybrid welding, with raising arc power, the keyhole-induced porosity was reduced. Besides the solidification rate of the molten pool, the melt flow was also closely related to weld porosity. A relatively steady anti-clockwise vortex caused by arc forces tended to force the bubble to float upwards at the high temperature region close to the welding heat source, which benefits the escape of the gas bubble from the melt pool. When increasing the arc power, the anti-clockwise region was strengthened and the risk of the gas bubble for capture by the liquid/solid interface underneath the keyhole tip was diminished, which resulted in the lower weld percent porosity. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid welding; numerical simulation; fluid flow; weld pore; aluminum alloy hybrid welding; numerical simulation; fluid flow; weld pore; aluminum alloy
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Xu, G.; Li, P.; Li, L.; Hu, Q.; Zhu, J.; Gu, X.; Du, B. Influence of Arc Power on Keyhole-Induced Porosity in Laser + GMAW Hybrid Welding of Aluminum Alloy: Numerical and Experimental Studies. Materials 2019, 12, 1328.

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