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Article

Optimization of Micro and Nano Palm Oil Fuel Ash to Determine the Carbonation Resistance of the Concrete in Accelerated Condition

1
School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth 6102, Australia
2
Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 15588, Korea
3
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University Malaysia, Miri 98000, Sarawak, Malaysia
4
Civil Engineering Department, Miami College of Henan University, Jinming Avenue No. 1, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
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Centre of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
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Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010130
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Construction Materials)
The carbonation rate of reinforced concrete is influenced by three parameters, namely temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the surroundings. As knowledge of the service lifespan of reinforced concrete is crucial in terms of corrosion, the carbonation process is important to study, and high-performance durable reinforced concretes can be produced to prolong the effects of corrosion. To examine carbonation resistance, accelerated carbonation testing was conducted in accordance with the standards of BS 1881-210:2013. In this study, 10–30% of micro palm oil fuel ash (mPOFA) and 0.5–1.5% of nano-POFA (nPOFA) were incorporated into concrete mixtures to determine the optimum amount for achieving the highest carbonation resistance after 28 days water curing and accelerated CO2 conditions up to 70 days of exposure. The effect of carbonation on concrete specimens with the inclusion of mPOFA and nPOFA was investigated. The carbonation depth was identified by phenolphthalein solution. The highest carbonation resistance of concrete was found after the inclusion of 10% mPOFA and 0.5% nPOFA, while the lowest carbonation resistance was found after the inclusion of 30% mPOFA and 1.5% nPOFA. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonation depth; concrete; microstructure; morphology; palm oil fuel ash; sorptivity carbonation depth; concrete; microstructure; morphology; palm oil fuel ash; sorptivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, W.L.; Lee, H.-S.; Vimonsatit, V.; Htut, T.; Singh, J.K.; Wan Hassan, W.N.F.; Ismail, M.A.; Seikh, A.H.; Alharthi, N. Optimization of Micro and Nano Palm Oil Fuel Ash to Determine the Carbonation Resistance of the Concrete in Accelerated Condition. Materials 2019, 12, 130. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010130

AMA Style

Tang WL, Lee H-S, Vimonsatit V, Htut T, Singh JK, Wan Hassan WNF, Ismail MA, Seikh AH, Alharthi N. Optimization of Micro and Nano Palm Oil Fuel Ash to Determine the Carbonation Resistance of the Concrete in Accelerated Condition. Materials. 2019; 12(1):130. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010130

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tang, Wei L.; Lee, Han-Seung; Vimonsatit, Vanissorn; Htut, Trevor; Singh, Jitendra K.; Wan Hassan, Wan N.F.; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Seikh, Asiful H.; Alharthi, Nabeel. 2019. "Optimization of Micro and Nano Palm Oil Fuel Ash to Determine the Carbonation Resistance of the Concrete in Accelerated Condition" Materials 12, no. 1: 130. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010130

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