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In Vitro Osteogenesis Stimulation via Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Carbon Nanotube Thin Films on Biomedical Stainless Steel

1
Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Bairro Urbanova, São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12244-000, Brazil
2
Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Brasil, Rua Carolina da Fonseca 584, Bairro Itaquera, São Paulo 08230-030, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091555
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
We evaluated the electrophoretic deposition of nanohydroxyapatite/superhydrop hilic multiwalled carbon nanotube composites (nHAp/MWCNT) onto stainless steel biomedical alloys for applications in bone tissue engineering. First, nHAp/MWCNT composites were dispersed into 0.042 mol·L−1 of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O + 0.025 mol·L−1 NH4H2PO4 electrolytes (pH = 4.8) at two different concentrations. Next, a voltage of −2 V was applied using 316L stainless steel as a working electrode (0.27 cm2), a high-purity platinum coil wire was used as the auxiliary electrode, and an Ag/AgCl (3 M) electrode was used as the reference electrode. The nHAp/MWCNT composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The deposited nHAp and nHAp/MWCNT films were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Human osteoblast cells were cultivated with the different materials and in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The osteogenesis process was evaluated by mRNA levels of the three genes that are directly related to bone repair: Alkaline Phosphatase, Osteopontin and Osteocalcin. We showed that rough, crystalline apatite thin films containing phases of nHAp were successfully deposited onto 316L stainless steel alloys. Also, we noticed that nHAp/MWCNT thin films deposited onto 316L stainless steel alloys upregulated the expression of important genes related to bone mineralization and maturation. Our results strongly support the possibility of this new alternative to modify the surface of metallic biomedical alloys to promote bone tissue regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: 316L; electrodeposition; nano-hydroxyapatite; carbon nanotubes; osteoblasts; gene expression 316L; electrodeposition; nano-hydroxyapatite; carbon nanotubes; osteoblasts; gene expression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinelli, N.M.; Ribeiro, M.J.G.; Ricci, R.; Marques, M.A.; Lobo, A.O.; Marciano, F.R. In Vitro Osteogenesis Stimulation via Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Carbon Nanotube Thin Films on Biomedical Stainless Steel. Materials 2018, 11, 1555.

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