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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Ammonium Halide Additives on the Performance of Methyl Amine Based Perovskite Solar Cells

1
School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
2
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, the University of Hong Kong Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081417
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells)
CH3NH3PbI3-xClx species were fabricated as light-absorbing layers for perovskite solar cells (PSCs), by employing NH4I, NH4Br, and NH4Cl as additives via annealing at 100 °C for different times. Solutions containing CH3NH3I, PbI2, and PbCl2 (4:1:1 molar ratio) in N,N-dimethylformamide were used to prepare perovskites with NH4I, NH4Br, and NH4Cl as additives, at concentrations of 0.1 M and 0.3 M. The additives helped increase the grain size and reduce pinholes in the perovskite films, as confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction profiles of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx clearly showed peaks at 14° and 28° for the samples with additives, indicative of crystallinity. The best PSC performance with a power conversion efficiency of 9.13%, was achieved using 0.1 M NH4I by annealing for 5 min, whereas the power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells without additives was 5.40%. View Full-Text
Keywords: perovskite structure; perovskite solar cells; additive; ammonium halide perovskite structure; perovskite solar cells; additive; ammonium halide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heo, D.Y.; Luo, Z.; Kim, S.Y. Effect of Ammonium Halide Additives on the Performance of Methyl Amine Based Perovskite Solar Cells. Materials 2018, 11, 1417.

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