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Formation Mechanism and Dispersion of Pseudo-Tetragonal BaTiO3-PVP Nanoparticles from Different Titanium Precursors: TiCl4 and TiO2

Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan
R & D Center, Noritake Co., Ltd., Miyoshi 470-0293, Japan
Inorganic Functional Material Research Institute AIST, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(1), 51;
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Nanomaterials)
PDF [4630 KB, uploaded 29 December 2017]


Nano-sized tetragonal BaTiO3 (BT) particles that are well dispersed in solution are essential for the dielectric layer in multilayer ceramic capacitor technology. A hydrothermal process using TiCl4 and BaCl2, as source of Ti and Ba, respectively, or the precursor TiO2 as seed for the formation of BT, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a surfactant, was employed in this study to enhance both the dispersibility and tetragonality (c/a) simultaneously in a single reaction process. The process parameters, i.e., the ratio of TiO2 substitution of TiCl4, the reaction time, and PVP content were systematically studied, and the growth mechanism and relation between the tetragonality and the particle size are discussed. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis was used to show that truncated pseudo-tetragonal BT-PVP particles with an average size of 100 nm, having a narrow size distribution and a coefficient of variation (CV) as low as 20% and being mono-dispersed in water, were produced. The narrow particle size distribution is attributed to the ability of PVP to inhibit the growth of BT particles, and the high c/a of BT-PVP to heterogeneous particle growth using TiO2 seeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: BaTiO3; poly(vinylpyrrolidone); hydrothermal; dispersion; c/a BaTiO3; poly(vinylpyrrolidone); hydrothermal; dispersion; c/a

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Li, J.; Inukai, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Tsuruta, A.; Shin, W. Formation Mechanism and Dispersion of Pseudo-Tetragonal BaTiO3-PVP Nanoparticles from Different Titanium Precursors: TiCl4 and TiO2. Materials 2018, 11, 51.

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