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Energies 2016, 9(9), 700;

A Framework to Analyze the Stochastic Harmonics and Resonance of Wind Energy Grid Interconnection

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 34056, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paras Mandal
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
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This paper addresses a modeling and analysis methodology for investigating the stochastic harmonics and resonance concerns of wind power plants (WPPs). Wideband harmonics from modern wind turbines (WTs) are observed to be stochastic, associated with real power production, and they may adversely interact with the grid impedance and cause unexpected harmonic resonance, if not comprehensively addressed in the planning and commissioning of the WPPs. These issues should become more critical as wind penetration levels increase. We thus propose a planning study framework comprising the following functional steps: First, the best fitted probability density functions (PDFs) of the harmonic components of interest in the frequency domain are determined. In operations planning, maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs) followed by a chi-square test are used once field measurements or manufacturers’ data are available. Second, harmonic currents from the WPP are represented by randomly-generating harmonic components based on their PDFs (frequency spectrum) and then synthesized for time domain simulations via inverse Fourier transform. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive assessment by including the impacts of feeder configurations, harmonic filters and the variability of parameters. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study approach for a 100-MW offshore WPP consisting of 20 units of 5-MW full converter turbines, a realistic benchmark system adapted from a WPP under development in Korea and discuss lessons learned through this research. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind power plant (WPP); harmonics; resonance; statistical modeling wind power plant (WPP); harmonics; resonance; statistical modeling

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cho, Y.; Lee, C.; Hur, K.; Kang, Y.C.; Muljadi, E.; Park, S.-H.; Choy, Y.-D.; Yoon, G.-G. A Framework to Analyze the Stochastic Harmonics and Resonance of Wind Energy Grid Interconnection. Energies 2016, 9, 700.

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