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Energies 2015, 8(9), 10409-10429;

Increasing Fuel Efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems with Feedforward Control of the Operating Concentration

Institute of Energy and Process Systems Engineering, TU Braunschweig, Franz-Liszt-Str. 35, Braunschweig 38106, Germany
SINTEF Applied Cybernetics, PO Box 4760 Sluppen, Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
International Max Planck Research School for Advanced Methods in Process and Systems Engineering, Sandtorstr. 1, Magdeburg 39106, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Akhtar Kalam
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 2 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methanol and Alcohol Fuel Cells)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1412 KB, uploaded 21 September 2015]   |  


Most of the R&D on fuel cells for portable applications concentrates on increasing efficiencies and energy densities to compete with other energy storage devices, especially batteries. To improve the efficiency of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems, several modifications to system layouts and operating strategies are considered in this paper, rather than modifications to the fuel cell itself. Two modified DMFC systems are presented, one with an additional inline mixer and a further modification of it with a separate tank to recover condensed water. The set point for methanol concentration control in the solution is determined by fuel efficiency and varies with the current and other process variables. Feedforward concentration control enables variable concentration for dynamic loads. Simulation results were validated experimentally with fuel cell systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: fuel cell system; concentration; control fuel cell system; concentration; control

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Na, Y.; Zenith, F.; Krewer, U. Increasing Fuel Efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems with Feedforward Control of the Operating Concentration. Energies 2015, 8, 10409-10429.

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